Marc Hauser- Moral Minds Universal moral grammar, instinctive, unconscious tool kit for constructing moral systems. Moral tests: train; five hikers ahead and one on track- kill one to save five; harvest organs from healthy person to save 5.- Agreement on one as right; other not. Darwin’s Cathedral Religion seen as a complex organism with biological functions- powerful force to motivate adaptive behaviors. “I think group selection can explain much about religion but by no means all. This leads to an expanding consciousness of the universe and speculation about one’s place within it. Why is Religion Natural? Skeptical Inquirer Magazine, March, 2004.- Pascal Boyer There is no religious module in the brain; rather belief in religion activates mental systems involved in a variety of non-religious domains. Not “Sleep of Reason” This says: “Religion is around because people do not think very much or very well.” Ordinary thinking and common sense intuitions also requires suspension of rules. Religious notions are rooted in the deepest principles of cognitive reasoning. Not “Sleep of Reason” Religious beliefs would not exist if they did not confirm many intuitive principles. Religious norms and emotions are related to and depend upon other systems- moral and emotional fears (e.g. of contamination) Barbara King-Evolving God Religion- a system not of beliefs but of actions and worship. Stems from the evolutionary development of a sense of group membership and especially for a group member that has died. Dalai Lama at MIT Dalai Lama hopes science can prove meditation has medical and emotional benefits- offer the world a secular method for relieving suffering and finding happiness. Buddhism is open to exploration and change. Dalai Lama at MIT FMRi-toreveal differences between negative reflexes such as anger and higher ones as well as cognitive afflictions like selfcenteredness. Monk Richard- left side of brainoff the chart- also on happiness. Dalai Lama at MIT How can monks hold images in their heads for hours? Can concentration be controlled and attention practiced? Adaptability of mind- develop mental functions far beyond brain’s predisposition.