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II. New Age of Science
(1830’s – early 1900’s)
In Western Europe, the introduction of electricity, chemicals,
and petroleum triggered a Second Industrial Revolution, and
a world economy began to develop.
A.
Samuel Morse.
1. Mid-1830s,
developed
electric telegraph
(Morse Code).
The telegraph changed
communications forever.
B.
Henry Bessemer.
1. The ‘Bessemer process’ – 1st
inexpensive industrial process for
mass-production of steel from
molten pig iron (1855).
Pig iron is raw iron.
Two weights used in the theatre and made
of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed
'pig weights.'
C.
Charles Darwin.
1. Showed that species
originated through
evolutionary change;
scientific theory of
natural selection.
2. “Survival of the
fittest.”
3. 1859, Origin of
Species.
A satire in Hornet magazine
portraying Darwin, the English naturalist,
with an ape body and the bushy beard,
1866.
The Galapagos Islands hold 13 species of finches that are closely
related and differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks.
The beak of each species is suited to its preferred food, suggesting
that beak shapes evolved by natural selection.
D. Louis Pasteur.
1. Prevent milk from going
sour in 1862, known as
pasteurization (kill organisms).
2. Created 1st vaccine for rabies.
E.
Alexander
Graham Bell.
1.
Invented the
telephone in
1876.
In "The Telephone Gambit: Chasing Alexander Graham Bell's Secret," journalist Seth Shulman
argues that Bell — aided by aggressive lawyers and a corrupt patent examiner — got an improper
peek at patent documents Elisha Gray had filed, and Bell was wrongly credited with filing first.
F.
Thomas Edison.
1. Invented the phonograph (1877),
research laboratory, & improved the
light bulb (1879).
Early advertisement for phonograph,
showing the inventor Thomas Edison.
1879
G.
Guglielmo Marconi.
1. Invented 1st radio
in 1895.
2. Improved
Morris Code;
used on
ships.
H.
1.
Marie Curie.
Discovered the radioactive elements
of polonium and radium (1898).
The first two-time
Nobel laureate and
the only person with
Nobel Prizes in two
different fields of
science (physics and
chemistry). She also
became the first
woman appointed
to teach at the
Sorbonne.
I.
The Wright Brothers.
1. 1st controlled, powered, heavier-thanair human flight on Dec. 17, 1903.
2. Orville
& Wilbur
in Kitty
Hawk,
N.C.
First flight of “Wright Flyer” on December 17, 1903.
J.
“You can paint it any color, so long as it's black.”
-- Henry Ford
Henry Ford.
1. Father of modern assembly lines
used in mass production (1913).
2. "Fordism", produced many
inexpensive; ↑ wages
($5/day in 1914).
Model T from
1908-1927.
Ford assembly line, 1913.



Production by 1916 was over 700,000
model T's -- twice the output of all
competitors combined.
The increased efficiency allowed Ford to
cut prices by a third, selling the car for
$850 in 1909, and $290 by 1924.
Ford made
15 million
model T's
by 1927.
Activity
In groups of 2,
create a chart
(4 across and
10 down)
listing the
person, item,
year, and
purpose.
Person
Item/
Invention
Year
Purpose
Samuel
Morse
Electric
telegraph
Mid-1830’s
Communication