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Chapter 15 Review &
Wrap-up
What is evolution?
• Change in a population over time.
Who was Charles Darwin?
• He was a naturalist who noticed
differences between organisms from
the different Galapagos Islands.
Came up with the theory of natural
selection to explain how these small
differences arose.
A mechanism for change in a
population.
• Natural selection
What are some important
principles that result in natural
selection?
• Organism has to produce more offspring
than can survive.
• There has to be variation within the
population
• Beneficial variations are passed on to
successive generations.
• Over time, the beneficial variation makes up
the majority of the population.
An inherited characteristic
which increases the chance of
survival.
• Adaptation
What is mimicry? Give an
example.
• An adaptation that allows an
organisms to look or behave like
another. Ex: monarch and viceroy,
snakes (coloration/rattling), yellow
jacket and syphrid fly.
What is camouflage?
• Ability of an organism to blend in
with its environment.
What is an example of
physiological adaptations
(change in metabolic
processes)?
• Bacteria resistant to penicillin or
insects resistant to DDT
What is an example of indirect
evidence that may support the
theory of evolution?
• Fossils, Homologous structures,
Analogous structures, Vestigial
structures, Embryology, Biochemistry
Can an individual evolve?
• Individuals cannot evolve…a
population evolves.
All of the different alleles in a
given population.
• Gene pool
What is an allelic frequency?
• Percentage of a given allele in a gene
pool.
What conditions are necessary
in order for genetic equilibrium
to be met?
• -No mutations
• -No genetic drift
• -No gene flow
Illustrate the results of
stabilizing, directional, and
disruptive selection.
• Stabilizing
• Directional
• Disruptive
What is speciation?
• The idea that two members of the
same species become so different
that they are no longer able to
interbreed producing fertile offspring.
List two types of isolation that
may result in speciation.
• Reproductive and Geographic
Describe two views of rates of
speciation.
• Gradualism (slowly over time) and
Punctuated Equilibrium (short bursts
of change and then no change)
Differentiate between
divergent and convergent
evolution.
• Divergent – one species  becoming
distinctly different
• Convergent – Distantly related
organisms deriving common traits.