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Transcript
Spitzer
Chandra
NASA’s Great Observatories
“an astronomical Mount Rushmore”
Compton
Hubble
Gains in orbit
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No atmospheric blurring
Wider accessible wavelength range
Instrumental stability
No clouds/daylight (timing)
HUBBLE
Past
…future?
Some HST Science highlights
• Structures of distant galaxies
Some HST Science highlights
• Structures of distant galaxies
• Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars
Some HST Science highlights
• Structures of distant galaxies
• Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars
• Black holes in (almost all) galactic nuclei
Some HST Science highlights
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Structures of distant galaxies
Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars
Black holes in (almost all) galactic nuclei
Protoplanetary material near young stars
Some HST Science highlights
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Structures of distant galaxies
Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars
Black holes in (almost all) galactic nuclei
Protoplanetary material near young stars
Gravitational lenses
Some HST Science highlights
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Structures of distant galaxies
Hubble constant from Cepheid variable stars
Black holes in (almost all) galactic nuclei
Protoplanetary material near young stars
Gravitational lenses
Intergalactic gas and its history
Stuff scattered all the way through the textbooks
Supernova progenitor in M51
(Li et al. in press)
Gravitational
microlensing
in NGC 3314
Instrument history
1990:
1993:
1997:
2002:
FGS HSP
FOS
GHRS FOC WF/PC
FGS CoSTAR FOS
GHRS FOC WFPC2
FGS CoSTAR NICMOS STIS FOC WFPC2
FGS CoSTAR NICMOS STIS ACS WFPC2
200? COS, WFC3
Hubble status, August 2005
• Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph dead
(only high-res/small-region spectrometer)
• 3 of 6 gyros (RSUs) functional (3 normally needed, 2gyro mode successful in tests)
• Battery capacity decreasing (will be useless circa
2010)
• Estimated 50% failure time on above: 2007
• Instrument/transmitter power cycling now reduced by
rescheduling/eliminating parallel imaging
UPDATE 31 AUG 05 – 2 GYROS
DAILY REPORT # 3934
PERIOD COVERED: UT August 29, 2005 (DOY 241)
All commanding for the transition to Two Gyro Science mode was successful.
Commanding included modifying control law gains for T2G, loading FSW support
files for TGS, modifying +D SPA commanding in new TGS safemode macros,
transitioning to TGS mode, and performing a full RAM dump.
Transition to TGS mode took place at 241/0217.
The first FGS guide acquisition at 0812 was successful, as have all subsequent
acquisitions.
Jitter in F2G (FGS/2 Gyro mode) was measured at approximately 3 milliarcseconds.
All three acquisitions performed have been successful with no LOL.
Options
• Shuttle SM4 (O’Keefe ruled out, CAIB
concerns, Griffin optimistic)
• Replace the whole thing (HOP proposal to
refly COS/WFC3)
Shuttle?
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“Safe haven” would mean standby orbiter
Limited remaining flights earmarked to ISS
Need for independent orbital inspection
Victim of the Vision?
Orbital mechanics: 28.5-degree inclination,
getting heaviest payloads highest from Cape
Canaveral, restricts options now
Servicing non-options
• Prohibitive energy requirements to co-orbit
with ISS in reach of astronauts
• 28-degree orbit out of reach from Baikonur
(ITAR restrictions aside)
• Ion thrusters would take the estimated
telescope lifetime for orbit change
• ~2015-30 estimated deorbit without boosting
Replace capabilities?
• Technology since 1980: lots cheaper. Thin
flexible mirrors, lightweight structures,
stabilize mirrors rather than structure…
• Unique access to optical/UV range
• Plan on table to fly 2.4m mirror with
existing HST instruments (Hubble Origins
Probe or HOP); could be as low as $250M.
• Need to decide who gets the instruments!
Final servicing status
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Current policy: do not preclude
Depends on next (2?) STS flight results
COS, WFC3, STIS repair, batteries, gyros
Deorbit module status unclear
Target: late 2007
Next up: JWST
James Webb Space Telescope
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Launch 2011, on Ariane V, to L2 region
6.5m deployable primary
0.6-20 microns (far red to mid-IR)
Key problems: formation of galaxies, first
stars, maybe planets
• Spacecraft weight/mirror area ratio roughly
that of Hubble mirror alone!
Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory
Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory
• Deployed April 1991 by Atlantis crew.
Deorbited mid-2000.
• Distribution, distance of gamma-ray bursts
• Gamma-ray blazars, relativistic beaming
• Microquasars
• Radioisotopes in interstellar medium
• Successors: Swift, INTEGRAL, GLAST
And at other wavelengths…
Chandra and its complement XMM-Newton
The galactic-center black hole
and its attendants
Hot gas between galaxies
The chemistry of a supernova
Fireball impact in Supernova 1987A
The history of black holes – a
Chandra deep field
Spitzer Space Telescope
Spitzer Space Telescope
• Warm launch, radiative
cooling
• Cryogen management, 2
years of 5+ so far
• Earth-trailing heliocentric
orbit
• 2 cameras, 2 spectrographs,
3.6-160 mm
Temperatures of extrasolar planets
Direct detection of IR from two
“hot Jupiters” during eclipses, two
wavelengths give temperature
estimates
Looking into dusty star cradles
Across the spectrum - now
FarIR MidIR nearIR opt UV farUV X-ray gamma
GALEX
Spitzer
WMAP
INTEGRAL
FUSE
Hubble
Chandra
Multispectral Greatest Hits
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Intergalactic gas
Starburst galaxies
High-redshift galaxies
Evaporating planets
Protoplanetary disks
Growth of black holes
Complexity of stardeath
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Gamma-ray bursts
Supernova chemistry
Quasar jets
Stripped galaxies
Pregalactic lumps
Galaxy history
Relativistic jets
A panchromatic view spiral galaxy M81
ROSAT
GALEX
Kitt Peak
Spitzer
VLA
Across the spectrum - soon
FarIR MidIR nearIR opt UV farUV X-ray gamma
JWST
FUSE?
Spitzer
Planck
GALEX?
Hubble?
Herschel
INTEGRAL
Chandra and XMM
SIM
TPF?
Swift
A new Universe to explore
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The full electromagnetic spectrum
Open international competition for observations
Public data archives (without mailing tapes!)
The beginnings of the Virtual Observatory
But astronomers think about facilities differently
from NASA and ESA…