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Transcript
What have we done
this year?
Well, since Christmas anyway
For this week and next one BIG
PowerPoint and one BIG set of class
notes!
1
There have been 3 main areas
The physical world
That was about how rocks are made
About the processes that changes how the world
looks
About rivers and how they are different in different
sections of its course
The working world
That was about the different sorts of economic
activities
And a bout farming in the UK
And farming in other parts of the world
Then we have been looking at fragile
environments
In this case the Amazon
2
You have an exam in 3 weeks
There will be 4 questions:
Question 1
will be about knowing where some of the
countries in the world are – you will get 10
-15 minutes each week to go and play some
quizzes and make sure you know
The names of the oceans and the largest seas
are and
the continents
Also the countries of Europe are
3
You have an exam in 3 weeks
There will be 5 questions altogether:
Question 2
Will be on keywords – that is why all the silly
quizzes are appearing on the wiki!
The keyword will be of the form:
What W means the conditions we get every day
which are always changing? Any ideas?
Question 3
Will be about the changing world
Question 4
Will be about the working world
Question 5
Will be about the Amazon
4
Each week we will remind ourselves
about the important parts of each topic
The homework will be things to do on the
wiki, but there won’t be any marks for
those, and I won’t know whether you have
done them or not – so it is really up to you
if you want to do well in the exam.
By the way, the PowerPoints will have
notes at the bottom – so if you open them
up, they will mention most of the things
we have talked about
5
So today we will
remind ourselves
about the physical
world
Look at
http://geography-atinterhigh.wikispaces.com/Year+7+Unit+
4
6
A thin crust - 10100km thick and
not very dense
The Structure of the
Earth
A mantle – extends
almost halfway to the
centre, hot and dense
A core – made of molten
nickel and iron. Outer
part is liquid and inner
part is solid. Gets hot
due to radioactive decay.
The Earth is believed to be 4500 million years old
7
8
Most of the rocks start out in the
mantle
And this is how
they get out
9
These rocks are Igneous rocks
10
Igneous rocks
Obsidian
Granite
Which one has
crystals you can
see? How did it
cool?
Pumice
11
Metamorphic rocks
12
Metamorphic rocks
Quartzite
I was
sandstone
I was
limestone
Marble
Slate
Did you
know I was
once clay?
13
Sedimentary rocks
How sedimentary
rocks are formed:
1) Weathering and erosion
2) Transportation
3) Deposition
4) Burial
14
Sedimentary rocks
Sandstone
Limestone
Conglomerate
15
We then went on to
looked at the
effects of having a
quarry nearby
Don’t worry about that!!
16
Processes at work
From the source to mouth of a river
three processes are taking place
River erosion
River Transport River Deposition
17
What you find along
a river’s course
18
River Structure
19
20
Why do we get floods?
Where did all the water
come from?
21
It is not really the rivers it is what
goes on around them that matters
Remember most of the water lands on the sides of the river.
How much of this ends up in the river depends on a number of
things
Steep or flatter valley
sides?
Town or country?
Grassy or wooded
valley sides?
Recent weather:
sunshine or rain?
Rocks are like cheese – some have holes
(permable) – some don’t (impermeable).
Which is better to have under you in a flood?
22
We talked about a little place called
Boscastle
And this what
happened to it on
16th August 2004.
Can you think of
any of the things
they could do to
prevent such a
disaster again?
23
24
Revision Session 2
The working world
http://geography-atinterhigh.wikispaces.com/Year+7+Unit+
5
25
What did we talk about?
1. The way jobs are classified and words
for different types of f arms
2. What farmers produce in different
parts of the UK and why
3. How farms have changed over history
and why? – but we are go to miss that out
4. What kinds of farms you find in Kenya
5. What is Fair Trade?
But we will not revise all of this – just
some of the important bits!!
26
How can we classify jobs –
why are the pictures in this order?
27
What do these words mean?
arable
pastoral
mixed
intensive
extensive
commercial
sedentary
subsistence
nomadic
28
Then we looked in quite a bit of detail
about what the UK was like and then
matched up the type of farming to it.
That would be too hard for those who
were not here then so this is all you need
to know about:
The kind of areas that you find:
sheep and beef cattle
Dairy cows
Pastoral farming
Horticulture or market gardening
29
Sheep and beef cattle are
not fussy where they live
They don’t need much
looking after so long as
they have some grass
But they are not the best
money makers either, so
not a first choice on the
best land
Arable is better grown
in large flat fields –
easier for the big
machines
Does not need it too
wet otherwise the
grains will not ripen
Dairy cattle needs lots lush
grass - so a lot of rain is a
good thing.
It need it to be warm as long
as possible so the grass goes
on growing into the Autumn.
These cows and the lush
grass do better on flatter land
Market gardening is all about fruit,
vegetables and flowers.
Greenhouses and vegetable plots
take lots of work and so are very
intensive. So the plots are small.
They need to be close to the market
so they can be sold that day and not
get damaged.
30
Then we looked at the types of farming
going on in Kenya
You can see it is on the
East Coast of Africa.
3 of the types of
farming we looked at
there –
An example of
subsistence – shamba
An example of pastoral
nomads – the Masai
Plantation agriculture –
tea -
31
Shamba –
Subsistence
agriculture
Small (1.5ha), growing maize, millet, peas & beans
Keep a few animals (cattle, sheep, chickens & goats) – a
source of eggs & milk but the animals sold as a cash crop
Animals used as machinery
Some people trained as Masai Desi (basic veterinary
care) – example of a self help scheme
Use basic irrigation systems to grow vegetables.
32
Pastoral
Nomads
Local Masai people
They move around
with their herds
of cattle looking for good grazing
They are totally dependant on their
cattle – food, clothing, wealth
But they are loosing their land to arable
farming so now grazing increasingly
marginal land
33
Plantations: tea plantations owned by
Brooke Bond
A Monoculture (only Tea is grown)
A Cash crop sold to Europe
Owned by a European Multi National Company,
but the workers are local Kenyans
16000 workers, working 9hrs a day, earning
approx. 43p/day based on picking
But the housing & schooling provided free with
clean water available – which is not always the
case in the rest of Kenya
There is also a free medical centre.
And they are trying to make their system
sustainable
34
What is sustainable agriculture?
It is agriculture that does not use
resources that they cannot replace
Water needs to be conserved where it is
in short supply
Oil/coal should not be used where there
are other fuel sources
Where wood is used to generate heat,
then enough trees need to be planted to
replace what you used
35
Unilever Tea Kenya (UTK) are doing this
Wood from managed plantations, mainly eucalyptus, is a
renewable energy source.
They coppice the trees rather than cut them down
They dry the wood under plastic
This means it burns better and the same wood produces
20% more heatT hey support forestry workers who
teach farmers and children to plant trees
They have tree nurseries growing native trees with
320 000 seedlings that will eventually be planted on
their own estates
They have set aside 14% of their land as natural forest
or conservation areas,
They will use rural areas such as forest edges and
riverine strips, and along roads or around housing,
schools and offices
This is encourage more rainfall and stop soil erosion.
36
What is unfair trade?
Unfair trade is where the farmers or producers of goods do not get
a reasonable price for their work.
How does this happen?
People in the HICs want cheap goods – be it food or clothes or
whatever the LICs can produce.
So the importers refuse to pay more than they can afford to
provide the cheap goods – and all the importers group together so
the goods have to be sold cheaply or not at all.
At the other end, big plantations are owned by companies from the
HIC, and they used to pay as low wages as they could, and as the
locals have to work for them as there is no other work, they have to
take low wages and bad conditions.
Not all exported goods are produced on plantations. Some are grown
as a small cash crop on basically subsistence farms.
Local traders travel around these areas and collect the cocoa or
coffee or whatever, and the small farmers have to sell to them at
whatever price they will pay as there is no-one else who will buy it,
and often this is not very much – these local traders take
everyone’s goods to the next big town, where it collected by bigger
traders who then export the goods.
37
What is Fairtrade?
The main idea behind Fairtrade Foundation is to
make sure that the producers get a reasonable
price for their goods.
In the case of farmers, they are promised
ahead of time what that will be, so that they
have a degree of certainty about what income
they will get.
They work with their regional cooperative to cut
back on pesticides and fertilizers so that their
production will be sustainable.
There is also a social premium paid to the
community which is then invested in education,
clean water, health care – whatever that
community decides.
38
Cocoa farmers in Ghana
Lucy Mansa is a cocoa farmer who makes
her living by growing and selling cocoa
beans.
She lives in a small village in Ghana called
Fenaso Domeabra.
But the price farmers received for their
cocoa beans was often very low.
Lucy says, 'I
Lucy and other farmers in her village used am very
to have to sell their cocoa to the Ghanaian happy: since I
government. They were often cheated and joined Fair
earned very little money for their hard
Trade I can
work.
afford to send
my children to
They could do very little about it, until
cocoa farmers in the same situation decided school'
to get together and form their own
company.
They called their company Kuapa Kokoo,
which means "good cocoa farmer."
39
It has really helped Lucy and thousands of other
farmers. Kuapa Kokoo pays all its farmers a fair price
for their crop, in cash, and on time.
But Fair trade has other advantages
The social premium means that in Lucy's village of
Fenaso Domeabra a new well has been built.
Clean water for everyone!
Desmond Mensah, Lucy’s son, sees the benefits of Fair
Trade.
"I'm very happy that we have this well; I've never seen
clean water like this before.
Before we got this well, we had to walk long distances
through the forests in search of water, and even then it
wasn't clean.
We want to sell more of our cocoa to Fair Trade
companies so that we can invest in more things for the
community.
At the moment, I go to school, but some of my friends
don't. I like school, I think education is important. My
favourite subject is maths, but I also like football."
Desmond
uses the
well
40
Other examples that you
found out about for fair
trade are on
http://geography-atinterhigh.wikispaces.com/Ye
ar+7+Unit+5
at the bottom of the page
are 2 PPs of your work, if
you want to choose another
one
41
Revision 3
The Amazon Rainforest
http://geography-atinterhigh.wikispaces.com/Year
+7+Unit+6
42
•The dark green
areas are all –
what?
•What is the
pattern of where
they are?
•Which is B? BO?
C? V? E?
The Amazon is in … and 4
countries that form part of
it are …..
43
Look at the sun’s rays as they hit the
Earth
same width
ray, more
spread out –
not so hot
same width ray,
not spread out at
all, much hotter
44
Now lets see how the rays pass through
the atmosphere As the rays from
the sun pass
through the
atmosphere,
some of the heat
is reflected back
out into space.
The thicker the
air, the more
heat there is that
never reaches
earth
It is hotter at the equator because the sun’s heat
are more spread out/ concentrated and the sun’s
rays travel through more/less atmosphere
Look how
much thicker
the air is
45
Why does it always rain in the Amazon?
About 4 o’clock nearly every day
The sun heats up the warm, damp surfaces. The water turning into
water vapour. Warm air rises, taking the water vapour with it. High up it
is colder and the water vapour forms clouds, giving heavy rain. 46
The Natural Greenhouse Effect at
work
The Earth is covered by a blanket
of gas.
The energy from the Sun reaches
the Earth’s surface, where some it
is converted to heat energy.
Most of the heat( blue arrows) is
re-radiated towards space, but
some is trapped by the greenhouse
gases in the atmosphere.
This natural effect allows the
Earth’s temperature to be kept at
a level necessary to support life.
47
The Natural Greenhouse Effect at
work
The main Greenhouse Gas
is Carbon Dioxide.
Until the last 200 years,
the amount of CO2 has
remained stable.
This is why
The natural greenhouse effect
helps the Earth stay warm/get
hotter. The carbon
dioxide/oxygen in the air traps
enough of the Sun’s heat to do
this. The CO2 stays the same
because animals breath it
in/out and plants take it in/out
48
But then there is the Enhanced
Greenhouse Effect
Look how this is
different!
Much more of the
heat from the sun
gets trapped in the
atmosphere
So the Earth gets
hotter
49
Why is more heat getting trapped?
We are taking the stored carbon from the
ground (oil and coal and gas) and burning it
This releases the CO2 and so the main
greenhouse gas is increasing
50
Where does the rain forest come into
this?
The only way carbon
dioxide can be taken
out of the
atmosphere is by the
plants – and trees are
better at it than most
because they are
bigger and need to
make more sugar to
grow.
So this is why do the
rainforests matter to
the Earth
Without our forests, less
of the carbon dioxide would
taken out of the air, so
more of it would be left to
trap more heat from the
sun.
51
So these are the things that can
happen if we increase the amount of
greenhouses gases
colder
Hotter
Some places will be
wetter
Windier
drier
The enhanced greenhouse effect helps the Earth stay warm/get
hotter. The CO2 stays the same/increases because we are burning
fossil fuels and/or cutting down the trees
52
If we cut down trees the forests will
suffer as well
The soil
Before: moist, shaded,
with lots of leaves to
make compost
After: dry and desiccated
as the sun dries up the
soil and makes it cracked
– the compost blows away
53
The temperature
Before: the temperature
is kept down in the day
because of the shade, but
the trees act as a blanket
making it only a bit cooler
at night
After: Very hot in the
day but cools quickly at
night with no protective
trees
54
Vegetation
Before: Lots of thing
grew
After: With poor soil and
the water evaporated, it
would turn into a desert
eventually
55
Greenhouses gases
Before: As much as
10% may be trapped
After: None is taken
in. But worse still even
more can be released,
by burning or rotting
56
Flooding and drought
Before: Heavy rain hits
the tree-tops and drips
down through the
branches, runs down
the trunks and soaks
into the soft earth
After: The heavy rain hits the
baked earth hard, forming
puddles and floods.
The earth has been baked by the
sun so it floods and then runs off
into the river, taking any loose
soil with it – this is called soil
erosion
57
Can you think of…
…3 ways the forest suffers
when the trees are cut down?
Hints
Soil, temperature,
vegetation, greenhouse gases,
flood and drought
58
What are the main causes of deforestation?
59
So what could they do instead?
We looked for sustainable activities –
activities that do not use up or destroy
what is there
Sustainable logging
Harvesting and growing forest fruits –
acai and guarana, brazil nuts, vanilla
Agroforestry – what is that? Why is it a
good thing?
Eco-tourism that saves the things people
want to see – is run by the people who live
there and improved their quality of life
60
The last two ideas
Can you think of 3 of the main reasons
why the rainforest is being cut down?
Could you write a short paragraph
explaining about one scheme/project that
is using the rainforest in a sustainable
way?
Go to http://geography-atinterhigh.wikispaces.com/Year+7+Unit+6 ,
especially Week 30 for fuller explanations
of one scheme to write your paragraph
about
61