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Unit 1, Lesson 2- Spheres of the earth
• The Earth’s features are
grouped into spheres
• Biosphere- the zone of
life on the earth that
includes all living things;
plants, fungi, and animals
are all parts of the earth´s
• the liquid layer of the earth,
made up of the earth´s
waters; the oceanic parts of
the hydrosphere cover
about three-fourths of the
earth´s surface
• the rocky outer layer of the solid
earth, averaging about 100 km in
depth; the lithosphere includes
the continents, islands, and the
entire ocean floor
• the gaseous layer surrounding
the earth, made up of the
mixture of substances known as
air; the earth´s atmosphere is
made up of many gases,
including the oxygen we need to
breathe, as well as small liquid
and solid particles
• the region in space that is
affected by the earth´s magnetic
field; solar wind and other
particles in space are deflected
by the earth´s magnetosphere
Unit 1 Lesson 3- Mapping the earth
• Cartographer- person who makes
• Map Projection- a way to transfer
information from a threedimensional curved surface to a
two-dimensional medium, such as
paper or a computer screen
• Map Legend-a section of a map
that explains the meanings of
symbols and that may contain the
map scale; symbols for airports,
recreation areas, campsites, and
other areas of interest may appear
in a map legend
• Latitude-a distance in degrees
north and south of the equator
Unit 1 Lesson 3 continued
• Longitude• a particular distance east or west of
the prime meridian running through
Greenwich, England, measured as an
angle at the earth´s center and
expressed in degrees; lines of
longitude meet at the poles
• Prime Meridian• the imaginary vertical line, running
north to south, from which longitude
is measured; the prime meridian runs
right through England
Unit 1 Lesson 4- Mapping the Earth’s Physical
• Topography-shows physical features of
an area of land and elevations
• Contour Lines- on a map, the line
connecting points having the same
elevations above sea level;contour
lines that are spaced close together
on a map show an area with a steep
• Contour interval-the difference in
elevation between contour lines;a
contour interval of 10 meters
indicates that the contour lines on the
map show 10-meter differences in
Unit 1 lesson 5-weathering
• Weathering-the breakdown
of rocks by physical or
chemical processes;
weathering causes the rocks
on a cliff to wear away
• There are 2 main types of
Unit 1 lesson 5-weathering
• Mechanical Weathering• the breaking up of rocks by
physical forces; mechanical
weathering occurs when water
expands as it freezes in the crack
of a rock, expanding the crack
and breaking the rock apart
Unit 1 lesson 5-weathering
• Chemical Weathering• the breaking up of rocks by
chemical reactions; natural acids
dissolved in rainwater are
important agents of chemical
weathering of rocks
Unit 1 Lesson 6-erosion
• Erosion• the gradual removal of
the surface of the land by
water, wind, or glaciers
•Does fast-moving water or slow-moving
water cause more erosion? Why? Raise
your hand if you want to explain it to us!
Meanders- bends and curves in a river
• -Meanders become more curved over time because fastmoving water on the
outside edges cause erosion
-Along the inner edges, water moves more slowly
Deposition- the process in which rock and soil particles move
from water, wind, or ice onto the land
Mass Wasting- the downhill movement of rock and soil; also
known as mass movement
•How is erosion different
from weathering? Who
wants to explain it to us?
•Weathering is the process in which
rock is broken down into smaller
•Erosion is the process in which rock
and soil pieces are moved over the
land by water, wind, ice, or other
Unit 1-Lesson 7- Soils of the Earth (K12 notes)
• Over time, rocks are weathered
and broken down into tiny
pieces, that form SOIL
• Soil contains water, air, dead and
living organisms
Soil Formation1) Organisms like lichen (crusty
patches from algae and fungus
growing together-Eww!) form on
rock surfaces
2) Acids start weathering the rock’s
3) Plants grow on the weathering
4) The plants die and their remains
mix with the rock sediments
5) Soil is formed!!
Unit 1-Lesson 7-Soils of the Earth (K12 notes)
• Scientists classify types of soil by
what they contain and how they
are formed!
• There are 3 common types of
soil- what are they?
• (Hint!)
Unit 1, Lesson 7-Soils of the Earth (K12 notes)
Porosity- how much water soil can
hold in the empty spaces between
Permeability- the rate at which
water passes through material
Unit 1,Lesson 7- Soils of the Earth (K12 Notes)
Loam- type of soil that has equal
parts of sand, silt, and clay. It is
the perfect soil for growing
Unit 1, Lesson 8-Soil Profiles (K12 notes)
• Which soil is young (immature) and which soil is older (mature)?
Unit 1, Lesson 8-Soil Profiles (K12 notes)
Organic- means living or once living!
Can you name what organic materials are in soil?
Type them in the chat box!!!
Unit 1, Lesson 8-Soil Profiles (K12 notes)
Soil Profile- cross-section of the
layers of soil above bedrock
Horizon- each soil layer
Leaching- water carries nutrients
down from one layer of soil to
Extra Resources
Watch this Bill Nye (the Science
guy) Video about Soil!
user name- LVS
Weathering and Erosion