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Nuclear Chem
• There are four major types of nuclear
reactions.
• Radioactive Decay
• Disintergration
• Fission
• fusion
Decay
• We did this earlier in the year.
• Alpha decay
In alpha decay the parent atom’s size is decreased by 4/2 He
the mass # drops by 4 and the atomic # by 2
• Beta decay
In beta decay the mass number of the parent remains the same,
but atomic number goes up by one.
Decay series for U 238
Nuclear disintergration
This is how medical isotopes are made. A target element
is bombarded with various sub atomic particles.
This makes the new structure unstable, and then
troughs its self apart to make a new element
Particle accelerators are used to do this.
Fission
• The splitting of large atoms into smaller
ones. Only a few atoms can be split.
U235 , U233, Pu 238
fusion
• Combining small atoms to make bigger
ones.
Nuclear reactors
Pressurized water reactor
Direct water boiling reactor
Critical mass
• The minimum mass needed to sustain a chain
reaction
Uses of radiation
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X-rays
Cat scans
Tracers
Sterilize equipment
Sterilize food
Carbon dating
Detecting radiation
• The Geiger counter works because
radiation causes ionization of gases.
Smoke detector
Radiation dosage
• RAD radiation absorbed dose
• .001 joules per kilogram
• Rem - radiation equivalent to man
Chernobyl reactor