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Transcript
Concepts of Matter and
Energy
By: Kirstin, James, Ryan David, and
Chloe
Matter
• Matter- is anything that occupies space and has
weight
• Matter can be found in 3 forms
• Solid, liquid, and gas
• Solids- have a definitive shape and volume
• Liquids- have a definitive volume but they conform
to the shape of their container
• Gases- have neither a definitive shape nor volume
• Matter can have both physical and chemical
changes
• A physical change does not alter the basic nature
of the substance
• A chemical change do alter the composition of the
substance
There are 2 types of energy
• Kinetic- energy doing work
• Potential- inactive stored energy
• All living things are built of matter to live
and function
Forms of energy
• Chemical energy- stored in bonds of
chemical substance
• Electrical energy- movement of charged
particles
• Mechanical energy-is directly involved
in moving matter
• Radiant energy-travels in waves, the
electromagnetic spectrum
Energy forms conversions
• Energy can go from one form to another
quickly.
• Energy can affect body temp. And also
the bodies functioning.
• When your body heats up is can be a
form of Kinetic energy
• This chemical reactions in your body is
what keeps you alive and
functioningeveryday.
Composition of Matter
Mackenzie, Rolanda, Sam, and
Jared
Elements and Atoms
• Matter is composed of a limited number of substances called
elements.
• Cannot be broken down,
• Total 112 elements, 92 naturally and the rest artificially.
• Periodic table is where the complete listing of elements appear.
• The atom is the building block of elements and all have atomic
symbols on them to show the differences.
Atomic Structure
•
•
•
•
•
•
Atoms have unique properties
Protons, electrons, and neutrons, and electrical charge
Protons =positive charge
Electrons= negative charge
Nuetrons=neutral charge
Electrical charger= able to attract and repel all the different
properties.
• Which all this together in one atom weighs at 1 atomic mass unit.
Planetary and orbital models of an
Atom
•
•
•
•
•
•
Planetary model portrays the atom as a miniature solar system.
Orbital model the more modern model of the atomic structure.
The atomic nucleus includes the protons and neutrons
The nucleus is dense and positively charged
The elements orbit the nucleus
The orbital's are the regions around the nucleus where you would
find the electrons.
Identifying elements
• Protons, neutrons, and electrons are all a like.
• Atoms of different elements= have different electrons,
protons, and neutrons
• All known atoms can be described by adding one proton
and one electron.
• Light protons have equal number of protons and
neutrons larger have more neutrons then protons.
•
Atomic number
• All elements have an atomic number
• Atomic number is equal to the number of protons its
atoms contain.
• Each atom has different number of protons than atoms
of any other element.
• Protons are always equaled to the number of electrons.
• The atomic number indirectly tells the number of
electrons the atoms has.
Atomic Mass Number
• Atomic mass number of any atom is the sum of
the protons and neutrons contained in its
nucleus
• ( EX. Hydrogen has one bare proton and no
nuetrons. So its atomic number and atomic
mass number is the same which is 1)
Atomic Weight and Isotopes
•
•
•
•
•
•
Atomic weight is the average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes of an
element.
Isotopes have the same number of protons and electrons but vary in the
number of neutrons they contain.
Radioistopes are havire isotopes of atoms that are unstable and tend to
decompose to become more stble.
Radioactivity is the process of spontaneous atomic decay. It can be
compared to a tiny exposions
Isotopes of an element have the same atomic number but different atomic
masses.
The atomic weight of an element is approximately equal to the mass
number of its abundant isotope
Molecules and Compounds
Michael Moussalli
Patrick McGinn
Sydney O’Connor
Pages 32-33
Definitions
• Molecule – When 2 or more of the
same atoms combine chemically
• H+H
H2 (Molecule)
• Compound – When 2 or more
different atoms bind together to form
a molecule
• 4H + C CH4 (Compound)
Molecular Formula
• The formula that shows what different
atoms make a molecule or compound
• H+H
• 2H + O
Chemical Equation
• The whole equation
• H + H = H2
• 2H = O = H2O
Chemical Bonds and
Chemical Reactions
Abby, Kristina, Nick, and Kenneth
What is a Chemical Reaction?
• A chemical reaction occurs when atoms
combine or separate from other atoms.
Bond Formation
• Chemical bonds are not physical
structures.
• They are energy relationships that involve
interactions between electrons of reacting
atoms.
Roles of Electrons
• Electron shells- (energy
levels) fixed regions of
space around the nucleus
where electrons are found.
• These shells are numbered
1 to 7, starting from the
nucleus outward.
• The currently known
maximum number of
electron shells is seven.
• The closest to the nucleus
are the most strongly
positive charged.
• The more distant are more
likely to react with other
atoms(less securely held).
Roles of Electrons (Cont.)
• Each shell has a limit to how many
electrons it can hold. (Shell 1 can hold 2,
shell 2 can hold 8, etc.)
• Valence Shells- the outermost shell in the
atom. It determines the chemical behavior
of the atom.
• The electrons in inner shells do not
participate in bonding.
Ionic Bonds
• Ionic bonds form when
electrons are completely
transferred from one atom
to another.
• They gain or lose electrons
during bonding.
• This causes their positive
and negative charges to
become unbalanced which
result in ions, charged
particles.
Ionic Bonds (Cont.)
•
•
•
•
Negatively charged ions are called anions.
Positively charged ions are called cations.
Both result when an ionic bond is formed.
Most bonds formed under ionic bonds fall under the
category of salts.
Covalent Bonds
• Covalent bonds occur when covalent molecules
share electrons.
• In some covalent molecules the electrons are
shared equally between the atoms of a molecule.
These are called Nonpolar Covalently Bonded
Molecules.
• When covalent bonds are made, the molecule
formed always has a definite three-dimensional
shape. (PG 35)
• The shape determines what other molecules or atoms in can
interact with.
• The shape may also result in unequal electron-pair sharing.
Covalent Bonds (Cont.)
Hydrogen Bonds
• Hydrogen bonds are extremely weak bonds
formed when a hydrogen atom bound to one
electron-hungry nitrogen or oxygen atom is
attracted by another electron-hungry atom.
• The hydrogen atoms form a bridge between the
atoms.
• Hydrogen bonds are common in water molecules
(surface tension).
• Hydrogen bonds also can be called
Intramolecular bonds. These bonds help to bond
different parts of the same molecule together into
a special three-dimensional shape.
Patterns of Chemical Reactions
• Chemical reactions involve the formation
or destruction of bonds between atoms.
• There are three types of chemical
reactions:
• Synthesis
• Decomposition
• Exchange
Synthesis Reaction
• A synthesis reaction occurs when 2 or
more atoms combine to form a larger more
complex molecule.
A+B
AB
• Synthesis reactions always involve bond
formation.
• They are energy-absorbing reactions.
• Synthesis reactions underlie all anabolic
activities that occur in body cells.
• They are important for growth and repair of old
Decomposition Reaction
• A decomposition reaction occurs when a
molecule is broken down into smaller
molecules, atoms, or ions.
AB A + B
• Decomposition underlie all catabolic
processes in the body cells.
• Decomposition Reactions are basically
Synthesis Reactions in reverse.
• Bonds are always broken and the products of the
reaction are smaller.
• Chemical energy is released.
Exchange Reaction
• Exchange reactions involve both synthesis
and decomposition reactions, both bonds
are made and broken.
• A switch is made during the reaction
between molecule parts.
AB + C
AC + B and AB + CD
AD +
CB
Biochemistry: The Chemical
Composition of Living Matter
Ann Marie Dean, Brett Foxworth,
Casey Gurlaskie, Chase Williams
2 major classes of molecules in the body:
•Inorganic and Organic
1. Inorganic compounds: Lack Carbon; tend to be
small and simple-ex: water, salts
2. Organic compounds: Carbon-containing
compounds; more complex-ex: carbohydrates,
lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Inorganic Compounds
A. Water
• Most abundant in the body (2/3)
• Properties that make water so vital:
1.
2.
o
o
o
High heat capacity- absorbs and releases large amounts of
heat before its temperature changes appreciably
Polarity/solvent properties-water=universal solvent
Solvent=liquid or gas in which small amounts of other
substances (solute) can be dissolved
Solvent+solute=solution
Respiratory gases and waste can dissolve in water
A. Water
o Mucus and saliva use water as their solvent
3. Chemical Reactivity• Water=very important type of reaction
• Water molecules are added to larger bonds to digest
food and break down biological molecules (hydrolysis
reaction)
4. Cushioning-water forms a cushion around organs, such
as the brain, to protect it from trauma
B. Salts
• Most plentiful salts contain calcium and
phosphorus (found in bones and teeth)
• Dissociation: when salt dissolves in the body
and separates in its ions
• Salt is vital to a body functioning
• All salts are electrolytes-substances that conduct
and electric current in a solution
C. Acids and Bases
1. Characteristics of Acids:
• Sour taste, can dissolve metal
• Acid-a substance that can release
hydrogen ions in detectable amounts
• Acids are proton donors
• Acids in the body: hydrochloric, acetic,
carbonic
• Strong vs. weak acids
C. Acids and Bases
2. Characteristics of Bases:
• Bitter taste, slippery
• Proton accepters
• Hydroxides are common inorganic bases
• Any base containing the hydroxl ion is a strong
base
• Bicarbonate ion (in blood) is weaker
• When acids and bases mix, they form water and
salt
• Neutralization reaction-when an acid and a base
react
C. Acids and Bases
3. PH: Acid-Base concentrations
• The relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various body
fluids is measured in concentration units called PH units
• PH scale: found in 1990 by Sorensen and is based on the the
# of protons in a solution expressed in terms of moles per liter
• PH scale-014; 7= midpoint (neutral); 1-6 acids, 8-14 bases
• 1= stronger acid; 14=weaker base
• Living cells are extraordinarily sensitive to even slight
changes in pH
• Acid/base balance is regulated by the kidney, lungs, and a #
of chemicals called buffers (present in body fluids)
C. Acids and Bases
• Weak acids and weak bases are important to
the body’s buffers systems which act to
maintain pH stability
• Regulation of blood pH is critical
• Normal blood pH ranges from 7.35-7.45;
small changes in this threaten death
• When blood pH begins to dip into the acid
range, the amount of life-sustaining oxygen
that the hemoglobin in blood can carry to
body cells begins to fall rapidly to
dangerously low levels
Acids and Bases
pH Scale