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Periodic Table - 2

An element is a type of atom that is
distinguished by its atomic number;

The number above the letter stands for 3 things
in a neutral atom (atomic number, number of
protons and number of electrons)
Compounds

chemical compound
is a substance
consisting of two or
more different
elements chemically
bonded together in a
fixed proportion by
mass

H2 is not a compound
since it is made up of
only 1 element.

NaCl (salt) is a
compound.
Molecules

A molecule is defined
as a sufficiently stable
electrically neutral
group of at least two
atoms in a definite
arrangement held
together by strong
chemical bonds

It may consist (made
up) of atoms of the
same chemical element,
as with oxygen (O2), or
of different elements,
as with water (H2O).

When 2 elements from
the right side of the
Periodic table get
together, it is called a
molecule
Mixtures

Mixtures can be homogeneous or
heterogeneous.

Homogeneous = Looks same throughout
(solutions like – salt water

Heterogeneous = Looks different throughout
(granola cereal/salad)
Solutions

A solution is a homogeneous
mixture composed of two or
more substances.

In such a mixture, a solute is
dissolved in another substance,
known as a solvent.

common examples ( salt or sugar
dissolved in water, a liquid. Gases
may dissolve in liquids also
carbon dioxide or oxygen in
water.
Colloid

A colloid is a type of
mechanical mixture where one
substance is dispersed evenly
throughout another. A colloidal
system may be solid, liquid, or
gaseous.

fog, mist, milk, mayonnaise,
hand cream, whipped cream,
butter, gelatin, jelly, cheese,
opal, paint, pigmented ink,
smoke, air particulates
Suspension
A suspension is a heterogenous
fluid containing solid particles that
are sufficiently large for
sedimentation






Mud or muddy water, is where soil,
clay, or silt particles in water
Flour suspended in water
Fog water suspended in air.
Paint
Chalk powder suspended in water.
Dust particles suspended in air.
Period/Row

Another word for
rows are periods.

The periods (rows) go
side to side on a
Periodic Table.
Group/Family

There are 18 groups
on the Periodic Table.

Groups are also called
families or
columns…….(goes
up and down).

Groups (families)
share characteristics
just like you share
characteristics with
your family. They
bond the same way
since they have the
same amount of
valence electrons.
Periodic Table


The modern periodic
table arrangement
was made by a
Russian chemist
named Dmitri
Mendeleev in 1869.
The current standard
table contains 117
confirmed elements
as of January 27,
2008

The elements on the
Periodic table are in
order of increasing
atomic number.
Charges

Neutral atoms have no
charge.
When atoms are not
neutral, they have a
charge.
When atoms have a charge,
they bond or get
together with other
atoms to go to a neutral
state.

Noble gases are
always neutral. They
do not have charges.
They do not bond
with other elements.
They are happy by
themselves.
Alkali Metals


Group 1 is the alkali metals (+1 Charge)
(Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium,
Cesium, Francium)