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Transcript

Binding Energy

Nucleons – protons and neutrons

Nuclides – any species of atom

Isotopes – same number of protons

Isotones – same number of neutrons

Coulomb repulsion and the strong nuclear force

5/24/2017
Protons vs. Neutrons
Radiation Protection and Safety
1

Binding Energy

5/24/2017
Nuclei have energy levels similar to electrons orbiting
the nucleus.

Protons and neutrons have spin ½

They obey the Pauli exclusion principle

Have a finite number of excited states
Radiation Protection and Safety
2

Binding Energy
5/24/2017
Radiation Protection and Safety
3

Binding Energy

Nuclear reactions are typically in the MeV range
~106 times the energy of chemical reactions
 Exothermic and endothermic
 Conversion of mass to energy → E = (Δm)c2


Relationship between atomic mass unit and energy

5/24/2017
For Δm: 1 u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg = 931.5 MeV
Radiation Protection and Safety
4

Binding Energy

Examples: 4He and 56Fe

Comparison of nuclides - binding energy per nucleon

Fusion and fission
5/24/2017
Radiation Protection and Safety
5

Binding Energy
5/24/2017
Radiation Protection and Safety
6

Binding Energy

Why is the slope higher for the fusion region of the
graph?

Total energy of decay (fission) processes

Decay diagrams
5/24/2017
Radiation Protection and Safety
7