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Transcript
The Millennium Ecosystem
Assessment:
Implications for the
Convention on Biological
Diversity
David Cooper
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity
International Day for Biological Diversity and
the Launch of the MA Biodiversity Synthesis
McGill University, Montreal, 19 May 2005
BIODIVERSITY: Life insurance for our changing world
Convention on
Biological Diversity
Objectives:
• Conservation of biological
diversity
• Sustainable use of its
components
• Fair and equitable sharing
of benefits arising out of
the utilization of genetic
resources
Programmes of Work
Thematic:
Cross-cutting:
• Marine and Coastal
Invasive alien species
Incentive Measures
• Forest
Protected areas
• Inland Waters
Sustainable use
• Agricultural
Traditional Knowledge
• Dryland
Access & Benefit Sharing
• Mountains
Biosafety
• Islands
Ecosystem Approach
The Challenge
“to achieve, by 2010,
a significant reduction
of the current rate of
biodiversity loss at
the global, regional
and national levels as
a contribution to
poverty alleviation
and to the benefit of
all life on earth”
Decision VI/26
Strategic Plan
Framework of goals and targets for assessing
progress towards the 2010 target
A: PROTECT THE COMPONENTS OF BIODIVERSITY
B: PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE USE
C: ADDRESS THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
D: MAINTAIN GOODS & SERVICES FROM BIODIVERSITY
E: PROTECT TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, INNOVATIONS …
F: ENSURE FAIR & EQUITABLE SHARING FROM GENETIC RESOURCES
G: ENSURE PROVISION OF ADEQUATE RESOURCES
Framework of goals and targets for assessing
progress towards the 2010 target
1: Promote conservation of ecosystems, habitats ..
2: Promote conservation of species diversity
3: Promote conservation of genetic diversity ..
4: Promote sustainable use & consumption
5: Reduce pressures from land/water use change ..
6: Control threats from Invasive alien species
7: Address challenges from climate change, pollution
8: Maintain ecosystem capacity, goods and services
9: Maintain socio-cultural diversity of communities
10: Ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits …
11: Improved capacity to implement the Convention
Millennium
Ecosystem
Assessment
The MA and
the CBD
Conference of the Parties - 8
Brazil, March 2006
SBSTTA - 11
Montreal, Nov-Dec 2005
COP-7: Requests SBSTTA
to review the findings of
the Millennium Ecosystem
Assessment including the
synthesis report on
biodiversity, (….) and to
prepare recommendations
to the eighth meeting of
the Conference of the
Parties
MA
Review
Draft
Synthesis
Conditions
& Trends
Scenarios
Responses
MA: Main findings on biodiversity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Biodiversity is being lost at rates unprecedented in
human history
Losses of biodiversity and decline of ecosystem
services is of a concern for human well-being,
especially for the poorest
Costs borne by society due to biodiversity loss is often
greater than the benefits gained through ecosystem
change
The drivers of change are steady or, more often,
increasing
Many successful response options have been used, but
further progress will require actions to address the
drivers of biodiversity loss
Unprecedented additional efforts would be required to
achieve, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of
biodiversity loss at all levels
Biodiversity is being lost.
Reasons for Concern:
•
•
•
•
Decline in Ecosystem
Services
Impact on the poorest
Loss of resilience 
shocks & surprises
Status
Regulating Services
Air quality regulation

Climate regulation – global

Climate regulation – regional & local

Water regulation
Loss of Unique species &
habitats
+/–
Erosion regulation

Water purification and waste
treatment

Disease regulation
+/–
Pest regulation

Pollination

Natural hazard regulation

Biodiversity & ecosystems are being degraded …..
….. need for many services increasing.
Nitrogen in ecosystems
Population
Climate Change
“Unprecedented additional
efforts would be required to
achieve, by 2010, a significant
reduction in the rate of
biodiversity loss at all levels”
•
•
Biodiversity will continue to
decline this century
With appropriate responses:
– it is possible to achieve by
2010 a reduction of the rate
of biodiversity loss for
certain components, or for
certain indicators
– Several of the sub-targets
can be met
Framework of goals and targets for assessing
progress towards the 2010 target
1: Promote conservation of ecosystems, habitats ..
2: Promote conservation of species diversity
3: Promote conservation of genetic diversity ..
4: Promote sustainable use & consumption
5: Reduce pressures from land/water use change ..
6: Control threats from Invasive alien species
7: Address challenges from climate change, pollution
8: Maintain ecosystem capacity, goods and services
9: Maintain socio-cultural diversity of communities
10: Ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits …
11: Improved capacity to implement the Convention
Framework of goals and targets for assessing
progress towards the 2010 target
1: Promote conservation of ecosystems, habitats ..
2: Promote conservation of species diversity
3: Promote conservation of genetic diversity ..
4: Promote sustainable use & consumption
5: Reduce pressures from land/water use change ..
6: Control threats from Invasive alien species
7: Address challenges from climate change, pollution
8: Maintain ecosystem capacity, goods and services
9: Maintain socio-cultural diversity of communities
10: Ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits …
11: Improved capacity to implement the Convention
Most
threats to
biodiversity
in most
habitat
types
are
increasing
Address direct drivers of biodiversity loss
Important drivers of biodiversity loss to 2050:
• Land use change (and water use), especially expansion of agriculture
• Increased Nitrogen Use
• Climate Change
Key Response Options:
• Elimination of perverse subsidies
• Sustainable intensification of agriculture
• Slowing and adapting to climate change
• Slowing increases in nutrient loading
• Correction of market failures
• Adopt ecosystem approach
Changes in Energy &
Agriculture Sectors
 Reduce or
moderate drivers
Increase Ecosystem
Resilience
 Mitigate impacts
Level of biodiversity
Possible future
trajectories of
biodiversity loss
(2)
(3)
(1)
past
Total
Per-Capita x
=
Consumption
Consumption
Pressure on Biodiversity
present
Time
Population
future
x
Resource
Use
Efficiency
Challenges for the Convention
•
Achieving progress towards 2010 goals and targets
 Implementation of agreed programmes
•
Better measures of biodiversity and models of
biodiversity change
Setting longer term strategy
To address direct and indirect drivers of biodiversity
loss
 Influencing major economic sectors
 More attention to economic issues:
• valuation
• incentive measures
• market creation
 Integration into development policy and practice
•
•
Thank you!
BIODIVERSITY: Life insurance for our changing world
MA
Framework
Outcomes for hunger reduction and biodiversity
loss under the MA scenarios
100 million
Hunger
Reduction
(reduction in number of
malnourished people, 2050
as compared to 2000)
0
-20
0
Biodiversity loss
(eventual loss of vascular plat
species on land due to land
use change, climate change
and nitrogen deposition by
2050, as compared to 1970)
20%
Need for multiple and longer term goals
Reasons for Concern:
(2) Impacts on the poorest
Reasons for Concern:
(3) Ecosystems become less resilient
Reasons for Concern:
(4) Unique species and habitats are lost