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Transcript
Development in Air Pollution Data Collection
in Europe
Hans Eerens
• Introduction
• Establishment European Environmental Agency (EEA)
and its Topic Centres
• A common European Environmental Information
system (EIONET): Air Quality (and Emission)
database through AIRBASE
• Presentation of data: Air Pollution Indicators &
Urban Air Pollution
• Integrated Assessment of Air Pollution & Climate
Change: the next steps
Introduction: Development European
Community Legislation
•
Around 1975: EC establish an air pollution expert working
group: Gathering urban air quality data (mostly SO2), main
focus on QA/QC of measurement methods and site selection
1979: Legal structure EoI (Exchange of Information)
directive: Member states selects a representative number of
measurement stations to EC, EC stores data and yearly
report data
80’s: Directives for SO2 and particles, Lead and NO2
1990: EoI directive ends 10 year period, new EoI needed
countries decide to continue on a voluntary basis,
development of Girafe (Guide of Air Quality Monitoring
Networks in Europe)
Introduction: Development European
Community Legislation
• 1992: Ozone directive
• 1996: Air Quality Framework adopted: general
principles for pollutant directives set
• 1997 new EoI adopted, all measurement stations that
measures a component on the list (.. Components) has
to be reported (in 2001 amended)
• 1998 EU provides countries with DEM, a data exchange
module to convert national data to Airbase, EEA
starts to provide yearly Air pollution reports based on
the data provided.
Introduction: Development European
Community Legislation
• 1999: First Daughter directive adopted (PM10,
So2, No2, lead)
• 2000: Second daughter directive: CO and Benzene
• 2001: Third Daughter directive: Ozone
• 2001: Emission Directive (NEC): SO2, NOx, VOC,
NH3 national emission ceilings for 2010 set
• 2001: CAFE (Clean Air For Europe) is launched: a
thematic strategy is foreseen for 2004
• coming up: Daughter directives for PAH’s and
heavy metals (Ni, Cd, As, Hg)
Introduction: Summary
Monitoring and reporting air emissions
and air quality data is required under
• CLRTAP protocols
• EU legislation
(air quality/emission Directives)
• UNFCCC
Background EEA
•
•
•
•
•
A European Union institution
Established by EU Regulation
Staff: about 80
Budget: ca. 20 M Euro
Seat: Copenhagen
EEA home page: www.eea.eu.int
The EEA mission
“Through the provision of timely, targeted,
relevant and reliable information to policy
making agents and the public, the EEA aims to
help achieve significant and measurable
improvement in Europe’s environment”
EEA member and partner countries
EU Member States
+ Norway Iceland
Liechtenstein
+East Europe, Malta,
Cyprus
(members in 2001)
NIS
ETC/ACC: general information
• Established April 2001 for three
years
• Lead organisation: RIVM, the
Netherlands
• Around 10 -15 man year/year
• Successor of two ETCs: Air Emissions
and Air Quality
• Focus on Air Pollution and Climate
Change
ETC/ACC: A truly European
consortium
Lead organisation: National Institute of Public
Health and Environment (RIVM)
12 Partners:
UBA- Berlin, Germany
IIASA, Austria
NILU, Norway
UBA- Vienna, Austria
AEAT, United Kingdom
AUT, Greece
CHMI, Czech Republic
ICCS-NTUA, Greece
DNMI, Norway
SHMU, Slovakia
TNO-MEP, The Netherlands
Öko-Institute, Germany
ETC/ACC: Vision and Priorities
• Partnership with countries and
stakeholders
• Consolidate monitoring work
• Support Air Pollution and Climate Change
Policies
• Enhance linkages between air emissions
and air quality
• Explore cross-benefits between Climate
Change and Air Pollution policies
Integrated Assessment (ACC)
Economy & population
D
energy
transport
P
CO2
GHG
S
SO2
NO2
regional
industry
SO2
O3
PM10
agriculture
NOx
SO2
VOC
NO2
tourism
NHx
O3
PM10
PM10
urban
I
Health
Ecosystems
R
ECCP
CAFE
Materials
Emissions
Air quality
Practical aspects - Air
Emissions
• Indicator reports
• Guidebook
• Reporting software:
– CollectER
– ReportER
• Internet data service
Practical aspects - Air
quality
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Indicator reports
Guidance documents
EUROAIRNET monitoring network
AIRBASE information system
AQ-DEM reporting software
Model Documentation System
Internet data service
Country Support Tools for Air
Quality
 Database
 Airbase
 Web based applications
(etc-acc.eionet.eu.int) :
 AIRVIEW
 MDS (Model catalogue)
 (ON LINE OZON WEBSITE)
 PC-application:
 DEMv5
EIONET
• EEA supports and helps improving and
streamlining national reporting
• Assessment and reporting is carried out
in close contact with national
coordination centers and expertise
centers
(meetings, workshops, informal
contacts)
Emissions
emissions
Contributing Economic Sector Drivers
Potential Impacts
34 %
18 %
32 %
6%
8%
Ecosystems
PM10
0%
Materials
0%
Health
Potential Pollutant
Emission Pressures
0 %0 % 0 %
Nitrogen oxides
Tropospheric Ozone
16 %
8%
13 %
6%
65 %
12 %
2%
4%
53 %
20 %
3%
0 %1 %
Sulphur dioxide
61 %
9%
5%
1%
7%
1%0%
Acidifying potential
26 %
13 %
25 %
31 %
4%
1% 1%
Eutrophying potential
8%
0%
Energy
Industry
7%
34 %
20 %
Transport
3%
46 %
40 %
Agriculture
60 %
Waste
80 %
Other
100 %
Fugitive Emissions
Emission: obligations
EU15
Germany
Luxembourg
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Austria
Sweden
France
Denmark
Belgium
Finland
Italy
Spain
Ireland
Greece
Portugal
-65%
-55%
-45%
-35%
-25%
-15%
% change from 1990
1990 - 2010: CLRTAP Gothenburg Protocol, 1 Dec. 1999
1990 - 2010: NECD Common position, June 2000
1990 – 1998: emissions
-5%
5%
15%
25%
Greenhouse gases: Distance-to-target
(1999)
Spain
16,5
Ireland
16,3
Denmark 1)
13,5
Portugal
10,2
Netherlands
8,8
Austria
8,5
Italy
7,3
Belgium
6,1
Greece
5,7
-0,2
France
-0,3
Sweden
-1,1

Finland
United Kingdom
Germany
Luxembourg
-8,4
-9,3
-30,7
-0,4
EU-15
-40,0

-30,0
-20,0
-10,0
0,0
10,0
20,0
AIRBASE
• AQ Data collection based on “Exchange of
Information Decision“ (EoI)
• pan-European
• Metadata of air quality measurement
stations in Europe (information about
networks, stations and measurement
configurations)
• Air quality measurement data (raw data,
statistics) of more than 30 countries
• available to general public
Access to AIRBASE
1995-1999
AIRVIEW
 Facilitates interactive access to AIRBASE
 Visualisation of data in the form of maps,
graphs or tables
 Java based applet application
 http://www.etcaq.rivm.nl/databases/
airview.html
Airview
Airview
Airview
Airview
Airview
Airview
Weekday dependence of
ozone concentrations
• …can provide information concerning
the effect of emission reductions on
Ozone
• NMVOC and NOx emissions are ca 30
% lower during weekend days than
during working days
The Ozone weekend effect
Ozone
1,4
Normalized concentration
1,3
1,2
1,1
1
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0
1
Saturday
2
Sunday
3
4
Monday
Tuesday
5
Wednesday
6
Thursday
7
Friday
8
The Ozone weekend effect
Nitrogen Dioxide
Normalized concentration
1,4
1,3
1,2
1,1
1
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0
1
Saturday
2
3
Sunday
Monday
4
Tuesday
5
6
Wednesday
7
Thursday
8
Friday
Average rural ozone trends
are upward
rural background stations > 5 full years
15
10
5
0
-15
-10
-5
0
trend (%/y)
5
10
15
Urban ozone trends are
more positive
O3 trends all stations > 5 full years
15
10
urban
rural
5
0
-15
-10
-5
0
trend (%/y)
5
10
15
High exceedances are going
down
e xce e dance 3 time s 240 ug/m3; all stations
n> 3*240 / nhour * 100000
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
Ozone summary (1994-2000)
50 P
# stations (> 1my)
98 P
1787
1788
> 5 monitoring years
645
645
upward trend
127
13
11
165
downward trend
Exceedance days Ozone (1994-2000)
180(1h)
# stations (>1my) 1868
> 5 mon years
664
upward
downward
zero
110(8h)
65(24h)
1804
586
1745
592
6
131
15
131
53
83
87
3
0
DEM (Data Exchange Module)
 Facilitates data transmission from
countries to AIRBASE
 PC-application
 Add, modify and delete meta information
on AQ networks, stations and measurement
configurations
 Visualise imported data
 Generate reports giving an overview
contained in application
DEM
 Transmitting the database through
Internet (Ftp) for incorporation in
Airbase
 Next cycle, next year: The DEM is sent to
the countries; the DEM is pre loaded with
all actual meta information of AIRBASE.
The countries are asked to correct and
complete the meta information and to add
the data of the last year
DEM
 Exchange of Information Decision
97/101/EC (from 2002: 2002/752/EC)
 Directive 92/72/EC (Ozone)
 EEA-Euroairnet
 EMEP Task Force Measurement and
Modelling
Summary: Country Support Tools for
Air Quality Accessible by Website




URL: etc-acc.eionet.eu.int
Interactive access to AIRBASE (Airview)
Download DEM
Information
ENVIRONMENTAL
INDICATORS
•
•
•
•
•
representative
transparent
distinctive
consistent within DPSIR-chain
target value
Air Pollution Indicators
Building blocks for:
• Environmental Signals report of EEA
• sectoral reports (TERM, EERM)
• Kiev report (ministerial conference)
• Air Quality & Air Pollution reports
• …...
Air Pollution Indicators
Core set-pressure:
• emissions acidifying pollutants
• emissions ozone precursurs
• emissions prim & sec PM10
• emissions SO2, NOx, VOC, NH3
Air Pollution Indicators
Core set-impact & response
(under development):
• human health exposure and risk by air
pollution
• effectiveness policy response SO2
and NOx
Industry sector
20%
10%
Tropospheric
Ozone
Precursors
0%
-10%
Acidifying
substances
-20%
Added
Value
-30%
Energy
Use
-40%
-50%
-60%
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Urban ozone
(8h>110 ug/m3)
exposure of urban population to O3
frequency of exposure class (all data)
90
75
60
50
30
25
0
0
1990
1991
0 days
1992
1993
0-15 days
1994
1995
15-30 days
1996
1997
>30 days
1998
1999
population
urban population (M)
fraction of urban population (%)
100
Urban SO2
exposure of urban population to SO2
exposure of urban population to SO2
frequency of exposure class
frequency of exposure class
90
50
60
25
30
0
0
1991
0 days
1992
1993
0-3 days
1994
1995
3-9 days
1996
1997
>9 days
1998
1999
population
fraction of urban population (%)
75
1990
100
120
all data
150
120
75
90
50
60
25
30
0
0
1990
1991
0 days
1992
1993
0-3 days
1994
1995
3-9 days
1996
1997
>9 days
1998
1999
population
urban population (M)
EEA-18
urban population (M)
fraction of urban population (%)
100
Urban PM10
exposure of urban population to PM10
frequency of exposure class
60
75
50
30
25
0
0
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
0 days
0-35 days
35-45 days
>45 days
population
urban population (M)
fraction of urban population (%)
100
Urban Air Pollution: exceedance of
Limit Values (LV)
Number of cities and their population with reported data and with stations above LV.
Total European urban population: 234 millions (in 29 EEA+Phare countries).
PM10
(day)
NO2
(year)
Ozone
(8-hour)
SO2
(day)
UB
Hotspot
UB
Hotspot
UB
UB
Hotspot
Cities with data
no.
Pop.
80
44.3
65
360
100.0
320
406
102.0
cities > LV
no.
24
40
45
23
114
Pop.
5.2
41.5
29.4
366
94.7
6
0.7
338
13
UB:
Urban background stations
Hotspot: Traffic or industrial stations
cities >1.5 LV
no.
Pop
5
0.51
10
7
21.3
3
0
3
5
0.25
Integrated Environmental
Assessment - Framework
• Driven by policy questions (GHG MM and
CAFE)
• Covering full DPSIR causality chain focus
on sectors
• Baseline trends: emerging issues and policy
effectiveness
• Geogr. scope: EU and ACC
• Time horizon: 2010/2010 (+2050 for CC)
National SO2, NOx, NH3,
VOC, PM emissions
Urban emissions
Concentration/
Deposition
Urban Concentration
Population
National/Regional GHG &
SO2 emissions (global)
GHG & S Concentration
Climate (change)
Interaction
Background
Impacts
Impacts
Impacts
•Health
•Health
•Sea level
•Ecosystems
•Ecosystems
•Climate
Response:
. Ancillary benefits
•cost- & environmental effectiveness
Co-benefits Climate Change
Co-benefits of climate change
Reduction 2010 compared to BL-2010
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
CO2
SO2
NOx
VOC
PM10
HMs
PAHs
Diox/Fur
Distance-to-target (2010) without
additional measures
Portugal
Ireland
Netherlands
Austria
Belgium
Finland
Italy
Sweden
France
Total EU
Spain
Luxembourg
Greece
Denmark
Germany
UK
-40%
-30%
-20%
-10%
2010 gap in % of 1990
0%
10%
EU: % of urban population exposed to
exceedances
100%
80%
60%
1995
40%
2010
20%
0%
PM10
NO2
Benzene
O3
SO2
Pb
CO
Visit our website
http://air-climate.eionet.eu.int