AP Review #6 Medulla Oblongata- Pons Cerebellum- Basal Ganglia Thalamus- Answers: Medulla Oblongata- lower region of brain; regulates heart rhythm, blood flow, breathing rate, digestion, vomiting Pons- Bridge between cerebral hemispheres and medulla and cerebellum; arousal Cerebellum- “little brain”; motor function; balance Basal Ganglia- links thalamus with motor cortex; reward and punishment learning Thalamus- “relay station”; vision, hearing, taste, skin senses, NOT smell Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety. The patient fears something awful will happen to them. Often called Neuroses What is anxiety? • A state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear. Hey…that sounds like me…right??? Differs from normal day to day anxiety in that anxiety – or effort to control it – begins to take control and dominate life Generalized Anxiety Disorder • A person is continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal (cant relax) • Anxiety is not tied to any particular object or situation • Anxiety has a “free-floating” quality The patient is constantly tense and worried, feels inadequate, is oversensitive, can’t concentrate and may suffer from insomnia. can lead to the more serious panic disorder Panic Disorder • sudden bouts of intense unexplained terror – Panic attacks – episodes of intense dread, chest pain, choking and other frightening sensations – People may think they are “going crazy” – More than three in six months is cause for alarm Can cause secondary disorders, such as agoraphobia or social phobias. Phobias • Irrational or excessive fears of particular objects or situations – People recognize that fears are irrational, but still avoid situations or objects – Three types – Social phobia, specific phobia, and agoraphobia The Phobia List Link Obsessive Compulsive Disorder • characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive actions (compulsions). – Becomes OCD when it takes control of our lives Common Examples of OCD Common Obsessions: Contamination fears of germs, dirt, etc. Imagining having harmed self or others Common Compulsions: Washing Repeating Imagining losing control of aggressive urges Checking Intrusive sexual thoughts or urges Touching Excessive religious or moral doubt Counting Forbidden thoughts Ordering/arranging A need to have things "just so" Hoarding or saving A need to tell, ask, confess Praying Explanations for Anxiety Disorders • Behavioral – You Learn them through conditioning, observational learning, and reinforcement • Evolution – fear based on earlier dangers to keep us alive • Genes – passed on • Physiology (the brain) – brains of those with anxiety disorders actually function differently • Cognitive – The way you look at the world or social situations (social phobias for example) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder a.k.a. PTSD • Flashbacks or nightmares following a person’s involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event. • Memories of the event cause anxiety.