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Health Related Fitness Unit 7 Part 1: Cardiorespiratory Endurance Cardiorespiratory Endurance The ability of your heart, blood vessels, lungs, and blood to deliver oxygen and nutrients to all of your body’s cells while you are being physically active. It is the single most important part of health-related fitness As your cardio endurance increases, your heart beats more efficiently. An indicator of poor cardio endurance is running out of breath while doing strenuous activity. Balloon Activity At the start, the balloon is a like an un-exercised lung! It is very hard to get air into it and hold. Just like a person who hasn’t exercised, their lungs do not have the capacity to hold a lot of air. After trying several times to inflate the balloon, it became easier right? Just as it was easier to inflate the balloon after several attempts; the more you exercise, the amount of lung volume increases. Resting heart rate & Recovery Indicators of your level of cardio endurance. Resting Heart Rate (RHR) is the # of times the heart beats per minute wile at rest. Recovery Time is the amount of time it takes for the heart to return to RHR after strenuous activity, Good cardio endurance reduces recovery time and RHR. Aerobic Activity Aerobic Activity tends to improve your cardio endurance. During Aerobic Activity, muscle cells use oxygen to produce energy for movement. The intensity of aerobic exercise is low enough so that the heart, lungs, blood vessels, and blood are all able to bring enough oxygen to your muscles. This allows your heart and muscles to continue with the activity for a long period of time. Aerobic activity is continuous, uses large muscle groups, and tends to be rhythmic in nature. Examples include walking, jogging, dancing, swimming, cycling, and jumping rope. Health Related Fitness Unit 7 Part 2: Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscular Strength Muscles move and apply force to objects and to each other by contracting. Muscular Strength is the amount of force that a muscle can apply in a given contraction. Lifting a weight, climbing the stairs, and pushing a large piece of furniture are acts of muscular strength. During weight (or resistance) training, muscles are challenged to contract more than they are used to doing. The muscles cells themselves become larger in response to this extra work. This growth increases the overall strength of the muscle. Muscular Strength Most exercises that build muscular strength take place in the weight room with heavy weights. Although the term "heavy" is subjective, loads that exhaust the muscle in eight to 10 repetitions build strength by building more muscle mass, while sets that exhaust the muscle in one to five repetitions build strength through adaptations. Some examples of muscular strength exercises include squats, seated calf raises, leg press, cable hip extensions, abdominal crunch machines, weighted back extensions, bench press, dumbbell flies, lat pull downs and kettlebell swings, as well as all powerlifting. Plyometric exercises, or explosive dynamic movements, such as depth jumps, medicine ball throws, skipping drills and explosive lunges build maximal muscle strength by improving the brain's communication pathways. Muscular Endurance Muscular Endurance is the ability of the muscles to keep working (contract) over a period of time. Muscular Endurance allows you to carry out tasks that require muscles to remain contracted for a period of time. Examples of sports: cross-country skiing and gymnastics. Muscular Endurance You can use almost any exercise to build muscular endurance by using high repetitions and light loads. Light weights, resistance bands or body weight provide the resistance so that the muscles don't reach to the point of failure. Good exercises for muscular endurance sets include abdominal crunches, resistance band lat pulldowns, or machine and free-weight exercises with very light loads. Depending on fitness and body size, a body-weight exercise such as pullups may be a muscular endurance exercise for one individual and a strength exercise for another. A muscular endurance workout might involve a high target number of repetitions, for instance, 50 squats.You can also use a time target for a muscular endurance workout, fitting as many repetitions as possible into a certain period of time. Muscular Strength/Endurance They are closely related: As one improves the other improves. Both are strength and endurance can be developed by regular weight training. Weight training is considered to be an anaerobic activity. During anaerobic activity, muscle cells produce energy without using oxygen. It is usually intense and short in duration. Muscular Strength/Endurance Exercises Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Station 1: Medicine Ball Station 1: Resistance Bands Throws with partner Station 2: Dumbbell Flies (set of 8 and break) Station 3: Squats with bar (set of 8 and break) Station 4: Dumbbell Swings (set of 8 and break) lat Pull-down Station 2: Power Jacks Station 3: Power Ups Station 4: Planks Each station 1 minute! Muscular Strength/Endurance Tracking Sheet MS: Medicine Ball MS: Dumbbell Flies MS: Squats MS: Dumbbell Swings ME: Resistant Bands ME: Power Jacks ME: Power Ups ME: Planks Unit 7: Health Related Fitness Part 3: Flexibility Flexibility Flexibility is the ability of the joints to move through their full range of motion. Good flexibility keeps joint movements smooth and efficient. Strong and healthy ligaments and tendons allow greater flexibility of a joint. Ligaments are the tissues that hold bones together at a joint. ACL and MCL are types of ligaments. Tendons are the tissues that hold muscles to bones. Achilles tendon Any activity that involves a joint moving through a full range of motion will help maintain flexibility. Stretching exercises (when done correctly) help flexibility. Flexibility Having good flexibility alone is not the most important component of physical fitness. However, keeping a good level of flexibility is important because lack of use can cause joints to become stiffer as you become older. Together with muscular strength and muscular endurance, flexibility is very important for overall fitness. These 3 components promote the health of bones and muscles. Unit 7: Health Related Fitness Part 4: Body Composition Body Composition Body Composition refers to the ratio of lean body tissue (muscle and bone) to body-fat tissue. A healthy bone has a high proportion of lead body tissue compared to body-fat tissue. Women naturally have more body fat than mend do. Also, body fat increases with age as muscle mass decreases. Body Comp. Having a certain amount of fat is necessary for good health. However, too much body fat increases the risk of getting certain lifestyle-related diseases. Such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Excess body fat is almost always due to being inactive as well as having poor eating habits. Due to stress of excess weight on the joints, people who have excess body fat are more likely to have back problems or joint problems. Regular exercise and good eating habits are the best ways to develop a favorable body composition.