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Introduction and History
Microbiology – Introduction and History
Staphylococcal folliculitis
Chicken pox
What is Microbiology?
Categories of Microorganisms
 Archaeans
 Some algae
 Protozoa
 Some fungi
 Viruses (not technically a living thing)
3 Domains of Life
Why do we study
1. Live on and in our body.
2. Can make us sick.
3. Would not be here without microbes.
4. Get rid of our wastes.
5. May clean up our messes (i.e. oil spills, ect.).
6. Make many essential elements available to
living things.
7. Food source.
8. Aid in digestion.
9. Some used to make medicine (i.e. antibiotics).
10. Important for genetic engineering.
Glowing Pigs and Jellyfish?
Some Terms to Know
Pathogen vs. Nonpathogen
 Indigenous or Normal Flora
 Opportunistic Pathogens
 Infectious Disease
 Microbial Intoxication
What was the first living organism
on earth?
Microbial infections have been
around for a long time!
Egyptian Mummy
3,000 B.C. - Ruma, a Syrian boy, depiction of polio
Some important
historical figures:
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
The “Father of Microbiology”
 First to see live bacteria and protozoa.
consisted of only
one lens and was
only 3-4 inches
long. It required
good lighting and a
lot of patience.
The Theory of Spontaneous
Generation - Abiogensis
Francesco Redi’s Experiment – 17th century
Cell Theory (1838)
Schleiden (left) and Schwann (right)
 Proposed independently that all living
things are made of cells
Proposed by Rudolf Virchow – 1858
 Life only arises from preexisting life.
Louis Pasteur
Discovered what occurs
during alcoholic
Helped disprove
spontaneous generation
Termed “aerobes” and
Discovered Pasteurization
Discovered many vaccines
Contributed to germ theory
of disease
Germ Theory of Disease
Theory that specific microorganisms cause
specific infectious diseases.
 For example, the bacteria Bacillus anthracis
causes anthrax.
Robert Koch
Contributed to germ theory of
– Discovered Bacillus anthracis
produces anthrax.
Developed methods for fixing,
staining, and photographing
 Developed methods of
cultivating bacteria on solid
 Was able to obtain pure
 Discovered bacteria that cause
tuberculosis and cholera.
Robert Koch
Koch’s Postulates
1. A microorganism must be present in every case of
the disease.
2. Isolate microorganism from diseased host and grow
in pure culture.
3. Same disease produced when microorganisms from
pure culture are inoculated into healthy, susceptible
4. Same microorganism must be recovered from
experimentally infected hosts and grown again in pure
The End