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```H H H H H H H H
| | | | | | | |
H-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-H
| | |
| | | |
H H H
H H H H
H H H
| | |
H-C-C-C-C-H
|
| |
H
H H
H-C-H
|
H-C-H
|
H
Here’s a structural
diagram of a typical
hydrocarbon
It has 14 C’s and 30
H’s so the formula is
C14H30
since each C is
surrounded by 4 bonds
typically, for ease of
drawing, the H’s are
left out to form a
carbon skeleton
diagram
To name the
parent chain
prefixes at the
beginning of the
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
word are used.
|
These prefixes are
C - C- C - C
|
This parent chain has 9 determined by the
C
| C so it starts with non. number of C
C If there are no double atoms in the
bonds it ends with ane parent chain.
Nonane is the name of the parent chain
Find the longest continuous
carbon chain. This structure
is called the parent chain.
Find the longest continuous
carbon chain. This structure
is called the parent chain.
If the carbon chain is
1 C starts with meth
2 C starts with eth
3 C starts with prop
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
4 C starts with but
|
5 C starts with pent
C - C- C - C
6 C starts with hex
|
This parent chain has 9 7 C starts with hept
C
| C so it starts with non. 8 C starts with oct
C If there are no double 9 C starts with non
bonds it ends with ane 10 C starts with dec
Nonane is the name of the parent chain
5
6
7
8
9
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
5
4
3
2
1
|
Using the red
C
CC
C
4
numbers the 1st
Next you must number 6 3 7
|
side chain is
the parent chain
Chains can be numbered 2 C 8
encountered at
from either direction so
the 5th C
|
Using the blue
9
C
Number the chain so the 1
lowest possible number
is used when the 1st side
chain is encountered
numbers the 1st
side chain is
encountered at the
3rd C
5
6
7
8
9
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
|
3 C side
chain is
4C - C- C - C
3
called
|
2
C
side
propyl
2 C
chain is
Next, identify the
|
called
side chains and
1 C
ethyl
where they are
attached
Notice all side chains end in
yl
5
6
7
8
9
Now lets
consider the
names which
have been
determined
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
|
4C - C- C - C Parent chain is nonane
3
|
side chains are
3-ethyl and
2 C
5-propyl
the complete name is
|
1 C
3-ethyl-5-propylnonane
Side chains appear 1st and are always alphabetized, (ethyl
before propyl), parent chain appears last
Now draw the skeleton structure for 5-butyl6-ethyl-2-methyl decane
1st identify the parent chain
5-butyl-6-ethyl-2-methyldecane
(decane means 10 C’s with no double bonds
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
Side chains are:
|
| |
2-methyl
C
C C
(1 C attached to the 2nd C)
| |
C C
5-butyl
|
4 C’s attached to the 5th C
C
6-ethyl
|
2C’s attached to the 6th C
C
Now draw the skeleton structure for 3,3diethyl-2,5,6-trimethylheptane
1st identify the parent chain
3,3-diethyl -2,5,6-trimethylheptane (heptane
means 7C’s with no double bonds
C
Side chains are:
|
3,3-diethyl
C
|
(2C attached to each side
C-C-C-C-C-C-C
of the 3rd C)
| |
| |
C C
C C
2,5,6-trimethyl
|
1C’s attached to the 2nd, 5th and 6th
C
C
Name the following:
C
C-C C
|
| |
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
| | |
|
C C C
C
octane
Parent Chain is
2,2,3,4,7,7 hexamethyl
Final Answer is 6 - ethyl
6 - ethyl - 2,2,3,4,7,7 - hexamethyloctane
Side Chains are
```
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