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Effective Sentences Objectives What a sentence consists of Word order -Inverted -Expletive Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-complex sentences Modifiers Parallelism Verb Voice Fragments Effective Sentences What does a sentence consist of? Word Order In Independent Clauses Most of your sentences should follow normal order. Subject, Verb, subject compliment ( element needed to convey the main message.) Two types of Orders - Inverted - Expletive Inverted Order Used to: emphasize some element that follows the verb or Create an artistic effect or Give subject an unusual emphasis. Inverted order cont. Most of your sentences should follow normal order. It’s easier for readers to digest. Be careful when using inverted order. You don’t want your sentence to sound unnatural or confuse the reader. Expletives Fills a vacancy in a sentence without contributing to the meaning. Ex: “There” and “It” Expletives are often used unnecessarily Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-Complex Sentences Simple Sentences: has one subject and one predicate. Can also have compound subjects, compound verbs, direct objects, indirect objects, and subject compliments. Most are short and easy to understand. Compound Sentences Cont. Other Coordinating conjunctions are: -For example, - However, - In fact, - likewise, - meanwhile, - Instead, -like, Compound Sentences Contains 2 or more independent clauses, each holding the same (coordinate rank.) Result is the idea in the first clause receives the same emphasis as the idea in the second. Often use coordinating conjunctions. A writer may use semicolons instead of a connecting words. Complex Sentences Has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Gives writer ability to emphasize a particular idea while still providing background information. Compound Complex Sentences Has 2 or more independent clauses and 1 or more dependant clauses. Allows writers to present more intricate relationships than do other kinds of sentences. Positioning of Movable Modifiers Can appear on either side of the main statement or with in it. 3 kinds of Modifiers: - Modifiers after main statement - Modifiers before main statement - Modifiers with in main statement Modifiers After main Statement Mirror conversation in which the speaker fist makes a statement, and then adds on further thoughts. Modifiers Before Main Statement These types of sentences delay the main point until the end. They slow down the pace and adds cadence to put more emphasis on the main point. Modifiers With In the Main Statement Inserting the modifier with in the main statement breaks up the flow of the sentence. Using Parallelism Presents equivalent ideas in grammatically equivalent form. Adds a smoothness and polish to sentences. Choosing The Right Verb Voice Derives from the relationship between a subject and the action. 2 types of voices: - Active - Passive Choosing the Right Verb Voice Cont. Active Voice-Has a subject that does something plus a verb that shows action. Passive Voice- reverses the subjectaction relationship by having the subject receive, rather than perform, the action. Using Fragments A fragment is a part of a sentence that is capitalized and punctuated as if it were a complete sentence. Although not normally used in formal prose, they do have their place. Normally used in dialogue. Writers can use a whole series of fragments to get their idea across.