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The Revolutions of 1848
Daniel W. Blackmon
AP European History
Coral Gables Sr. High
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
Impact of Industrialization on the Working
Classes
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
Europe as a whole is still predominantly
rural. Great Britain and Belgium were the
most industrialized and urbanized areas.
France was a generation behind, and the
rest of Europe possibly even farther.
Inhibiting factors were lack of capital and
poor transportation. Railroad building
promised to alter that.
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
Nevertheless, there were 400,000 factory
workers in France (Jones 7) and 600,000
in the German states (9). Their life
expectancy was lower than than of rural
workers, their housing squalid, their diet
monotonous, and they were especially
susceptible to diseases such as cholera.
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
In Germany, worker standards of living
were declining in the 1840s. Evidence in
both France and Germany suggest that
the traditional methods of social control in
a rural society had broken down. A sense
of class-consciousness (in the Marxist
sense) was developing–that skilled and
unskilled workers had distinct interests
within a society that was more industrial
and capitalist.
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
Traditional artisans remained an important
segment of the economy in France, Italy
and Germany. The artisans, who were
generally better off than factory workers,
were under heavy pressure from
modernization; for instance, guilds were
being outlawed and immigrant workers
undersold their labor.
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
The artisans wanted programs such as
tariff barriers, revival of guilds, and
guaranteed work. (10) The artisans, not
the factory workers, provided the
backbone of working class rebellion in
1848. (Jones 5-13)
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
Impact of Industrialization on the Middle
Classes
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
Middle classes were primarily urban, and
their key issue is frustrated ambition.
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
Grande Bourgeoisie: [bankers,
merchants, senior state officials,
industrialists] Not revolutionary in outlook;
they are interested in increased
modernization and industrialization,
improved credit and investment capital. In
France, Germany and Italy, this group had
reason to be discontent with the
government.
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
Professional Middle Class: [lawyers,
surgeons, architects, professors,
journalists, minor state officials] A growing
number of educated young men found
themselves competing for too few public
offices. This is especially true of university
students.
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
In France, this competition for office was a
major source of unhappiness with the
government. In Germany especially,
academics were the intellectual leaders of
the liberal movement. This is the class
that articulated political discontent.
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
An Orleanist official observed “ ‘it isn’t the
workers one should fear, rather it is the
déclassés, doctors without patients,
lawyers without briefs, all of the
misunderstood, the discontented, who
finding no place at the banquet table try to
overturn it.’ “ (Jones 21)
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
Petite Bourgeoisie [shopkeepers,
elementary school teachers, small
employers] This group tended to share the
political ideals of the professionals, but
were usually very vulnerable economically.
General Causes for the
Revolutions of 1848
They often allied themselves with the
artisans, particularly in Germany, where
Jewish emancipation had led to a protoantisemitic movement where Jewish
merchants served as symbols of
modernization.
Population Pressure and
Agriculture
The Agricultural Revolution which began in
Holland and England had not yet spread
throughout Europe. Much agricultural
production was still inefficient (the farther
east one goes, the truer this is). At the
same time, population was rising swiftly:
from approximately 120,000,000 in 1750
to 187,000,000 in 1800 to 266,000,000 in
1840 (Jones 24).
Population Pressure and
Agriculture
Population growth led to
underemployment. Peasants migrated to
cities seeking work, where they lowered
wage scales. Farmers were still quite
vulnerable to natural disasters. “At the
same time, changes in the modes of
agricultural production and the extent of
capital investment had the effect of
squeezing out the small independent
peasant producers.
Population Pressure and
Agriculture
This often pushed the rural classes into
proto-industrial activities [cottage industry],
especially in textiles.” (25)
Population Pressure and
Agriculture
Political power in Europe was still held by
the hereditary aristocracy, and their wealth
was based upon land. Land ownership
was highly concentrated (except in
France). feudal dues such as the robot.
Population Pressure and
Agriculture
The land owners in Central and Eastern
Europe still exercised great control over
the lives of the peasants through
remaining
Population Pressure and
Agriculture
About 70% of a peasant’s income was still
spent on food (27); hence, any food
shortage or fluctuation in price (such as
1845-47) could destroy the stability of rural
society. (Jones 24-28)
The Breakdown of Traditional
Political Control
The Congress of Vienna attempted to
secure the principles of hereditary
monarchy, Church authority, and
aristocratic privilege as the foundations of
society. (29)
The Breakdown of Traditional
Political Control
Metternich equated liberal reform with
revolution, and the French Revolution of
1830, which replaced the legitimate
Charles X with Louis Philippe, appeared to
prove his case. (30) Elsewhere in Europe,
governments were autocratic and / or
absolutist.
The Breakdown of Traditional
Political Control
Elsewhere in Europe, governments were
autocratic and / or absolutist. After 1830,
the conservative position began to erode
under attacks from liberalism, nationalism,
socialism and democracy. (32)
The Breakdown of Traditional
Political Control
Liberalism not only demanded the
limitation of traditional authority by the
Crown or the Church by parliaments
dominated by the middle class and
freedom of the press, but also demanded
economic freedom: free trade, abolition of
tariffs, an end to remaining feudal
restrictions.
The Breakdown of Traditional
Political Control
Liberalism is strongly middle-class–the
credo of manufacturers, entrepreneurs,
professionals. Limited suffrage is one of
their key planks: suffrage should be based
upon property holding.
The Breakdown of Traditional
Political Control
Democracy favored universal male
suffrage, and usually envisaged a
republican government. In France,
provincial school teachers and the petite
bourgeois often were democrats. The
spread of literacy helped the spread of
democracy.
The Breakdown of Traditional
Political Control
Socialists demanded some form of
restructuring of society. Writers included
Robert Owen, Louis Blanc, August
Blanqui, and, of course, Karl Marx and
Friedrich Engels. The Revolutions of
1848 provided the occasion for writing The
Communist Manifesto. Leaders of
various socialist movements tended to
come from the artisan classes.
The Crisis of the 1840s
The mid-1840s saw crop failures due to
weather conditions, compounded by the
effects of the potato blight. Food prices
shot up; grain prices in France 100 to
150%, Venice to 100% and potatoes in
Gemrany 135% (44) Food riots resulted.
The Crisis of the 1840s
“There was also a financial and industrial
crisis, especially in France.” (43) The
government of Guizot had backed the
construction of railroads, but speculation
and overproduction of iron and coal led to
a sharp drop in prices. Manufacturers laid
off workers, unemployment soared.
The Crisis of the 1840s
Bankruptcies among the petite bourgeois
increased. Germany suffered a financial
crisis in textiles, industry in northern Italy,
Austria and Bohemia suffered.
The Crisis of the 1840s
Such conditions led the middle classes to
demand reform and a role in government
while fear of massive disorder frightened
the governments into giving in without
much of a fight. (Jones 43-51)
The Revolution of 1848 in France
Specific Causes
By the 1840s, Louis Philippe’s Orleanist
regime was losing credibility with the
bourgeoisie. Guizot, who dominated the
government, faced opposition from Thiers,
who was a reformer., but was pre-empted
by republicans.
The Revolution of 1848 in France
This opposition was expressed by the
Banqueteers campaign, which began as
a call for reform
The Revolution of 1848 in France
Guizot had won the election of 1846, but
widespread corruption was charged, and a
series of scandals in the government
weakened his position. The National
Guard, made up of bourgeois youths,
became alienated. His policies were seen
as failed.
The Revolution of 1848 in France
For instance, although he increased the
number of public school students from 1.9
to 3.5 million, the class of elementary
school teachers resented their low pay
[how amazing!!]
The Revolution of 1848 in France
His policy of avoiding colonial wars (in
order not to stir up British hostility) was
construed as unpatriotic. His government
supported large railway loans, but
speculation and overproduction of iron led
to a financial crisis in 1847.
The Revolution of 1848 in France
Thiers desired electoral reform and to
depose reform. The Banqueteer
campaign was initially part of that strategy.
However, on February 22, 1848, Guizot
became alarmed at the demonstration,
and called out troops, who fired upon the
crowd. The result was the February
Days.
The Revolution of 1848 in France
Barricades went up all over Paris, and
soon the demonstrators were joined by
units of the National Guard.. Social
disorder became widespread. Louis
Philippe abdicated.
The Revolution of 1848 in France
The new Provisional Government, led by
Lamartine, was moderate in its make up (even
Louis Blanc was, for a socialist, moderate).
Lamartine’s Manifesto to Europe was intended
to allay fears of a new round of revolutionary
wars, but also indicated that his chief concerns
were not social.
The problems to be faced were finance, political
consolidation, and social issues.
The Revolution of 1848 in France
Uncertainty made it impossible for the PG
to re-establish financial stability; in fact,
gold reserves fell, credit tightened, and the
government attempted a new 45 centime
tax on income which hurt small farmers
and peasant proprietors.
The Revolution of 1848 in France
Politically, the PG instituted universal
manhood suffrage. The results were not
as expected. Giving peasants the vote
meant giving the Church tremendous
electoral influence. The election boiled
down to a battle between a republican
bureaucracy and clerical influence, with
the Church winning. The new
Constituent Assembly was weighted
towards property.
The Revolution of 1848 in France
With property interests dominant, there
was little likelihood of success socially.
The great problem in the cities was
unemployment. Louis Blanc proposed
National Workshops, a public works
program to alleviate unemployment.
The Revolution of 1848 in
France: Reaction
In June 1848, the government began to
fear popular revolution, led by the workers.
When the National Workshops were
dissolved, the barricades went up in Paris
again.
The Revolution of 1848 in
France: Reaction
This time, however, the middle classes
were haunted by the spectre of working
class violence (to paraphrase Marx) and
the Army, commanded by Cavaignac, was
used ruthlessly to crush the revolt. 3,000
were killed, and 11,000 arrested, with
many being deported to Algeria.
The Revolution of 1848 in
France: Reaction
The aftermath led to the rise of Louis
Napoleon Bonaparte as a popular
conservative candidate with support from
all social classes. The Bonaparte name
reminded Frenchmen of their glory days,
and further was associated with order.
The Revolution of 1848 in
France: Reaction
Since he supported Church control of
education, he received the support of the
clergy. Furthermore, his opponent was
Cavaignac, whose butchery in Paris made
him unpopular with many.
The Revolution of 1848 in
France: Results
They revolution intensified divisions within
French society, and brought into power a
regime at least as supportive of bourgeois
interests as that of Louis Philippe..
The Revolution of 1848 in
France: Results
By 1851, Louis Napoleon had reimposed
a considerable degree of repression,
curried favor with the Church by sending
French troops to defend Pope Pius IX in,
and then staged a coup d’etat that
proclaimed himself Emperor.
Reasons for the Failure of the
Revolutionaries
The classic Marxist interpretation of the
Revolution of 1848 sees the bourgeoisie
and proletariat in a temporary alliance to
remove Louis Philippe, but then quickly
their interests diverge, with the July Days
representing reaction.
Reasons for the Failure of the
Revolutionaries
There is a great deal of evidence
supporting this view, although the work of
Rudé demonstrates that artisans among
the demonstrators outnumbered workers
by 2:1. The peasants are seen by the
Marxists as supporting the Right. This is
not entirely the case.
Reasons for the Failure of the
Revolutionaries
Peasants in the more prosperous,
northern departments, where farming was
more modernized, tended to support the
right, such as Louis Napoleon. Peasants
in the poorer south, however, were often
defending traditional privileges against
modernization, and therefore tended Left.
(Jones 52-65)
The Revolutions of 1848 in the
Hapsburg Lands
Specific Causes
The years immediately prior to the
revolutions saw the Austrian government
largely rudderless: the emperor,
Ferdinand, was feeble minded and
Metternich was forced to share power
with others, particularly Kolowrat, who
were very jealous of his influence.
The Revolutions of 1848 in the
Hapsburg Lands
Austrian finances were (as usual) in very
poor shape. The condition of the
peasantry had been declining steadily.
The Revolutions of 1848 in the
Hapsburg Lands
Not only the peasants but also rural
landlords, especially the Magyars, desired
an end to the robot. Stephen Szechenyi
had argued that free labor was three times
more efficient than forced labor. (Jones
68)
The Revolutions of 1848 in the
Hapsburg Lands
Nationalism however, is the biggest
problem for the Austrians – a problem that
will not go away and which will eventually
lead to the dissolution of the Austrian
Empire in 1918. Magyars, Italians,
Romanians, Croats, Poles, Czechs,
Slovaks, and Slovenes all pressed their
own claims
The Revolutions of 1848 in the
Hapsburg Lands
Last, a middle class liberal opposition had
developed in Vienna which attacked
Church privileges, and sought financial
and fiscal reform, constitutional
government, expanded suffrage, civil
service reform, abolition of censorship,
religious toleration, universal education
and a citizen’s militia (like France’s
National Guard).
The Revolutions of 1848 in the
Hapsburg Lands
Louis Kossuth’s speech to the Hungarian
Diet was translated and widely read. The
liberals attracted the support of students.
These liberals were, however, reformers,
not revolutinaries, and were loyal to the
dynasty. (69)
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Revolutionary Course
News of the revolution in France led to
demonstrations in Vienna. The
government yielded with remarkable
speed: Metternich fled on March 13, and
the emperor agreed to a constitution. A
civic guard was accepted, and censorship
lifted.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Revolutionary Course
In Budapest, Kossuth’s speech aroused a
storm. Demonstrations broke out and a
Magyar government, including Kossuth
and Szechenyi.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Revolutionary Course
The March Laws were passed, which
abolished the robot, and provided for the
election of a Diet based upon restrictive
landholding. Knowledge of Magyar was a
requirement for any candidate.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Revolutionary Course
This meant, in effect, the domination of the
great Magyar land lords over the Slavic
minorities (thus replacing a German
speaking elite with a Magyar speaking
elite.).
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Revolutionary Course
In Vienna, the students and middle class
intellectuals became more assertive,
causing the royal family to flee. Their
Constituent Assembly abolished the robot.
Ironically, at this point, the peasants are
satisfied, and will not support the
revolution farther.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Revolutionary Course
Revolution in Prague also broke out.
Czech nationalism was the product of
middle class intellectuals such as
Frantisek Palacky.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Revolutionary Course
Bohemia was developing industrially with
an entrepreneurial class that was mostly
German-Jewish and with Germans
dominating business, land, the clergy and
the bureaucracy. Czech nationalism is,
therefore, a response to foreign
domination.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Revolutionary Course
The Wenzelsbad Program espoused an
end to the robot, and freedom of the
press. Petitions to the Crown demanded a
constitution and recognition for the Czech
language in education and administration.
(72)
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Revolutionary Course
In June, the Pan-Slav Congress
convened under Palacky’s chairmanship.
Palacky’s demand was essentially for
greater autonomy for the Slavic minorities
within the empire (he was suspicious of
the Russians).
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Reaction
A student uprising in Prague coupled with
worker unrest in the cotton mills gave the
Imperial Governor, Windischgratz the
opportunity to bombard the city. This
success opened other opportunities for
reaction
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Reaction
At this point, the nationalist hostilities
within the Empire serve to defeat the
revolution. Kolowrat appointed the bitterly
anti-Magyar Joseph Jellacic governor of
Croatia. Jellacic invaded Hungary to
suppress the Magyars. Kossuth
mobilized resistance.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Reaction
Word of this led to the October Days in
Vienna, which caused the Court to flee
again along with 100,000 bourgeois
inhabitants. Windischgratz now besieged
Vienna, killing 300-5,000. The October
Days, like the June Days, are a turning
point, with the bourgeoisie now opting for
order.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Reaction
The new government under
Schwarzenberg now persuaded
Ferdinand to abdicate in favor of Franz
Josef.
With Austrian armies successful in Italy,
only Hungary still fought on. Franz Josef
accepted a Russian offer of assistance,
Windischgratz and the Russians together
crush the Magyars.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Results
Politically, the results are negligible.
Socially, the great achievement is the
abolition of the robot. The revolution was
formative for the Italians, who achieved
unity in 1859-1866 and for the Magyars,
who achieve autonomy in 1867.
The Revolutions in the Hapsburg
Lands: Reasons for Failure
The bourgeoisie and intellectuals were not
united; the peasants uninterested after the
robot was abolished, and mutual
hostilities between the Magyars, Croats,
Czechs, Romanians, Slovene, and
Slovaks allowed the Austrians to pit one
nationality against the other. (Jones 66-76)
The Revolutions of 1848 in the
German Lands: Specific Causes
The liberal movement in Germany, as
elsewhere, was the product of middleclass ambition. German grandes
Bourgeoisie was unhappy with the
fragmentation of the German market (they
supported the Zollverein), banking and
credit facilities, and resented the political
monopoly of the hereditary aristocracy
such as the Junkers in Prussia. (17)
The Revolutions of 1848 in the
German Lands: Specific Causes
Two-thirds of the population was still
peasants, and they were suffering severly,
especially in the south. The German
governments were weak, and not well led.
Artisans and workers were also very
restive. Eventually, the working class
revolution will diverge from those of the
bourgeois liberals.
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
News of the revolution in France led to
demonstrations, and the formation of a
Pre-Parliament in Heidelberg, and later
Frankfurt. This was to lead to a
Constituent Assembly whose goal was a
unified Germany under liberal auspices.
The assembly was dominated by the
bourgeoisie by virtue of property
requirements to vote.
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
Working class groups petitioned for a
minimum wage, maximum working hours,
rights of association, a progressive income
tax, state education, free libraries and the
regulation of the apprenticeship system.
(Jones 79)
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
King Frederick William IV caved in under
pressure of demonstrations in Berlin. The
March Days fighting in Berlin humiliated
the King and forced the conservatives
back..
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
The king appointed a liberal government.
However, the March Days not only made
the Junkers more determined, it also
made the middle classes fear social
revolution.
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
Unrest among German Handwerker
(artisans) was significant. Led by August
Stephen Born, they formed associations
and societies whose goals were really
defensive:
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
“ ‘There is no greater enemy of the petty
bourgeoisie and of the labouring classes,
no greater enemy of the solidarity of the
small trades than these aliens [i.e. Jews] .
. . . Their heart is the money-bag.’ “ (Jones
83)
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
The Industrial Code produced by the
Artisan Congress was strongly anti-free
enterprise. This, of course, ran very
counter to bourgeois values.
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
Although they supported typical liberal
issues, such as equality before the law,
careers open to talent, inviolability of
personal libery, freedom of the press, the
Frankfurt Assembly was badly divided.
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
The issue of whether Germany should
include the non-German Hapsburg lands
or not; whether the government should be
democratic-republican, secular, or federal,
what power the King should have. (Jones
84)
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
Schleswig-Holstein revealed liberal
weaknesses. The duchies were claimed
by the Danish crown, but Prussia
supported the claims of the German Duke
of Augustenburg.
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Revolutionary Course
When King Frederick VII announced his
intention to absorb the duchies, the
liberals protested and turned to Prussia for
help. Great Britain and Russia however
intervened, forcing the Prussians to back
down. The result was a split between the
liberals and Prussia–but it also appeared
as if the liberals were incapable of actually
conducting a policy
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Reaction
In Berlin, the Junkers succeeded in
bringing the weak Friedrich Wilhelm IV
into line. He dismissed his liberal
ministers.
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Reaction
Meantime, the Frankfurt liberals broke with
the Handwerker [artisans], who pushed
for restoration of guilds, compulsory
elementary education and a progressive
income tax. They were now almost
completely isolated. In March 1849, they
offered the crown of Germany to Friedrich
Wilhelm, who rejected it.
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Reaction
Friedrich Wilhelm still had dreams of
German hegemony; he proposed an
Erfurt Assembly to forward those
ambitions. The Austrians were not
amused; they force Friedrich Wilhelm to
back down at the “Humiliation of
Olmutz”
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Results
For most German nationalists, liberalism
had been discredited. The groundwork
had been laid for Bismarck’s brand of
autocratic nationalism.
The Revolutions in the German
Lands: Reasons for Failure
“The revolution failed because there was
no common ground among the
revolutionaries.” (Jones 87)
(Jones 77-88)
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Specific Causes
The most prosperous regions were
Piedmont-Sardinia, Lombardy and
Venetia. The Hapsburgs had placed the
heaviest taxes on Lombardy and Venetia,
which angered the Italian grandes
bourgeoisie. (18)
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Specific Causes
Social unrest had begun in 1847, with the
revolution in Palermo which forced
Ferdinand II into granting a constitution.
Other clashes had occurred in Milan and
in Tuscany against Austrian troops in
January.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Specific Causes
The cities of Milan and Turin were growing
rapidly in the first decades of the 19th
century; most other Italian cities were
suffering from economic stagnation. In all
cities, the petite bourgeoisie formed a very
large segment, while the upper
bourgeoisie was relatively quite small.
(Jones 89-90)
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Specific Causes
Living conditions in the cities were among
the poorest in Europe (with a life
expectancy of only 24 in Naples. (90) A
very large proportion of the population was
engaged in agriculture, and Italian
agriculture was inefficient and in decline.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Specific Causes
There was pressure in the north to convert
Italy’s agricultural system from an
essentially feudal system to a capitalist
one (that is, from subsistence to marketoriented farming). This brought its own
disruptions and hardships.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Specific Causes
Almost everywhere, agriculture alone was
not enough to sustain the peasants–they
desperately needed some other source of
income, such as day labor or cottage
industry. In Lombardy and Venetia, failed
harvests in 1846-7 made the heavy
Austrian taxes and Austrian conscription
into the army extremely unpopular. (91)
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Specific Causes
When the revolutions break out, peasants
will flock to the cities in order to overthrow
Austrian taxation and conscription.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Specific Causes
Weak agriculture meant wild price
fluctuations in the cities. (In Venice, wheat
doubled in price and corn increased 77%
between 1846-48) (91-92) which led to
food riots. In the cities, there was growing
conflict within the bourgeoisie between
merchants and traders on one hand
(representing capitalism) and artisans
(representing feudalism) on the other. (92)
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Specific Causes
Politically, the urban intelligentsia
demanded reforms within the Italian
states, and the eviction of the Austrians
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Revolutionary Course
King Charles Albert of PiedmontSardinia granted liberals a constitution in
1847. Although not himself liberal, he
desired Piedmontese expansion, and
ultimately was prepared to fight Austria in
order to get it. He therefore hesitated to
identify himself with the liberals, but was
certainly a nationalis.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Revolutionary Course
Revolution broke out in Milan in March
1848, forcing Austrian Marshal Radetzky
to evacuate the city. The Milanese asked
Piedmont to intervene, and, pressured by
Count Camilo Cavour, Charles Albert
agrees. A plebescite confirmed Charles
Albert’s leadership in Lombardy.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Revolutionary Course
In Venice, the workers in the Arsenal had
revolted, and Daniele Manin proclaimed a
Venetian republic. The new government
here, like Milan, was made up of
bourgeois moderates, and Piedmontese
help was again asked.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Revolutionary Course
Charles Albert for his part was afraid both
of the nationalist revolutions becoming
politically radical and of French interention.
Trying to control the movement, he
declares war on Austria. Pope Pius IX
refused to support such a war, and the
Piedmontese are badly beaten by
Radetzky at Custozza. In the south,
Ferdinand repossessed Palermo by force.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Reaction
Radetzky then initiated a counterrevolution in Lombardy. In the Papal
States, the defeat of Piedmont led to
intensificaiton of radical (democratic)
pressures, culminating in the Pope fleeing
Rome and a Roman republic being
proclaimed by Mazzini in 1849. A republic
was also declared in Tuscany.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Reaction
The republics however, were much too
weak to stand against Austrian armies.
Rather than see Austrian troops in Rome
(and also to curry favor with the Church at
home), Louis Napoleon of France sent
trrops to Rome. The Roman republic was
crushed.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Reaction
Radetzky then besieged Venice, bringing
the revolutions to an end.
Charles Albert was required to abdicate.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Results
King Victor Emmanuel of Piedmont proved
to be more liberal than his father, and wins
the support of a growing commercial class.
His minister, Cavour, determined that Italy
could be united only with outside
assistance, and began to plan accordingly.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Reasons for Failure
Revolutionary leadership was weak.
Leaders such as Mazzini were theorists,
with no experience of rule themselves, and
were afraid of mob rule. The defense of
property and maintenance of order are
issues that did not resonate with either
urban artisans or peasants.
The Revolutions in the Italian
Peninsula: Reasons for Failure
After initial defeats, the Austrians under
Radetzky were able to mount a counterattack once victories in Bohemia allowed
the reinforcement of their Italian
garrisons.(Jones 89-97)
The Revolutions of 1848:
Aftermath
Autocracy was strengthened in France,
Prussia and Austria. However, the
governments recognized that at least
some efforts had to be made toward
modernization, even if conservatives kept
firm control over power. In France,
universal manhood suffrage was granted.
Even in central Europe, the last vestiges of
feudalism were abolished.
The Revolutions of 1848:
Aftermath
Strong governments in France and
Prussia probably encouraged further
industrial and economic growth.
The Revolutions of 1848:
Aftermath
Nationalist leaders such as Cavour and
Bismarck emerge, ready to avoid the
mistakes of 1848 in order to achieve the
unification of their respective countries.
(Jones 98-107)
Works Cited
This handout, as you may have noticed, is
a glorified book report (or to look at it
another way, a very lengthy indirect
quotation since I have essentially
summarized the entire book). The only
book cited therefore, is
Works Cited
Jones, Peter. The 1848 Revolutions. 2nd
Edition. NY: Longmans, 1991.
The End!!!!!