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The Revolutions of 1848 Daniel W. Blackmon AP European History Coral Gables Sr. High General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 Impact of Industrialization on the Working Classes General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 Europe as a whole is still predominantly rural. Great Britain and Belgium were the most industrialized and urbanized areas. France was a generation behind, and the rest of Europe possibly even farther. Inhibiting factors were lack of capital and poor transportation. Railroad building promised to alter that. General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 Nevertheless, there were 400,000 factory workers in France (Jones 7) and 600,000 in the German states (9). Their life expectancy was lower than than of rural workers, their housing squalid, their diet monotonous, and they were especially susceptible to diseases such as cholera. General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 In Germany, worker standards of living were declining in the 1840s. Evidence in both France and Germany suggest that the traditional methods of social control in a rural society had broken down. A sense of class-consciousness (in the Marxist sense) was developing–that skilled and unskilled workers had distinct interests within a society that was more industrial and capitalist. General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 Traditional artisans remained an important segment of the economy in France, Italy and Germany. The artisans, who were generally better off than factory workers, were under heavy pressure from modernization; for instance, guilds were being outlawed and immigrant workers undersold their labor. General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 The artisans wanted programs such as tariff barriers, revival of guilds, and guaranteed work. (10) The artisans, not the factory workers, provided the backbone of working class rebellion in 1848. (Jones 5-13) General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 Impact of Industrialization on the Middle Classes General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 Middle classes were primarily urban, and their key issue is frustrated ambition. General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 Grande Bourgeoisie: [bankers, merchants, senior state officials, industrialists] Not revolutionary in outlook; they are interested in increased modernization and industrialization, improved credit and investment capital. In France, Germany and Italy, this group had reason to be discontent with the government. General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 Professional Middle Class: [lawyers, surgeons, architects, professors, journalists, minor state officials] A growing number of educated young men found themselves competing for too few public offices. This is especially true of university students. General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 In France, this competition for office was a major source of unhappiness with the government. In Germany especially, academics were the intellectual leaders of the liberal movement. This is the class that articulated political discontent. General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 An Orleanist official observed “ ‘it isn’t the workers one should fear, rather it is the déclassés, doctors without patients, lawyers without briefs, all of the misunderstood, the discontented, who finding no place at the banquet table try to overturn it.’ “ (Jones 21) General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 Petite Bourgeoisie [shopkeepers, elementary school teachers, small employers] This group tended to share the political ideals of the professionals, but were usually very vulnerable economically. General Causes for the Revolutions of 1848 They often allied themselves with the artisans, particularly in Germany, where Jewish emancipation had led to a protoantisemitic movement where Jewish merchants served as symbols of modernization. Population Pressure and Agriculture The Agricultural Revolution which began in Holland and England had not yet spread throughout Europe. Much agricultural production was still inefficient (the farther east one goes, the truer this is). At the same time, population was rising swiftly: from approximately 120,000,000 in 1750 to 187,000,000 in 1800 to 266,000,000 in 1840 (Jones 24). Population Pressure and Agriculture Population growth led to underemployment. Peasants migrated to cities seeking work, where they lowered wage scales. Farmers were still quite vulnerable to natural disasters. “At the same time, changes in the modes of agricultural production and the extent of capital investment had the effect of squeezing out the small independent peasant producers. Population Pressure and Agriculture This often pushed the rural classes into proto-industrial activities [cottage industry], especially in textiles.” (25) Population Pressure and Agriculture Political power in Europe was still held by the hereditary aristocracy, and their wealth was based upon land. Land ownership was highly concentrated (except in France). feudal dues such as the robot. Population Pressure and Agriculture The land owners in Central and Eastern Europe still exercised great control over the lives of the peasants through remaining Population Pressure and Agriculture About 70% of a peasant’s income was still spent on food (27); hence, any food shortage or fluctuation in price (such as 1845-47) could destroy the stability of rural society. (Jones 24-28) The Breakdown of Traditional Political Control The Congress of Vienna attempted to secure the principles of hereditary monarchy, Church authority, and aristocratic privilege as the foundations of society. (29) The Breakdown of Traditional Political Control Metternich equated liberal reform with revolution, and the French Revolution of 1830, which replaced the legitimate Charles X with Louis Philippe, appeared to prove his case. (30) Elsewhere in Europe, governments were autocratic and / or absolutist. The Breakdown of Traditional Political Control Elsewhere in Europe, governments were autocratic and / or absolutist. After 1830, the conservative position began to erode under attacks from liberalism, nationalism, socialism and democracy. (32) The Breakdown of Traditional Political Control Liberalism not only demanded the limitation of traditional authority by the Crown or the Church by parliaments dominated by the middle class and freedom of the press, but also demanded economic freedom: free trade, abolition of tariffs, an end to remaining feudal restrictions. The Breakdown of Traditional Political Control Liberalism is strongly middle-class–the credo of manufacturers, entrepreneurs, professionals. Limited suffrage is one of their key planks: suffrage should be based upon property holding. The Breakdown of Traditional Political Control Democracy favored universal male suffrage, and usually envisaged a republican government. In France, provincial school teachers and the petite bourgeois often were democrats. The spread of literacy helped the spread of democracy. The Breakdown of Traditional Political Control Socialists demanded some form of restructuring of society. Writers included Robert Owen, Louis Blanc, August Blanqui, and, of course, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The Revolutions of 1848 provided the occasion for writing The Communist Manifesto. Leaders of various socialist movements tended to come from the artisan classes. The Crisis of the 1840s The mid-1840s saw crop failures due to weather conditions, compounded by the effects of the potato blight. Food prices shot up; grain prices in France 100 to 150%, Venice to 100% and potatoes in Gemrany 135% (44) Food riots resulted. The Crisis of the 1840s “There was also a financial and industrial crisis, especially in France.” (43) The government of Guizot had backed the construction of railroads, but speculation and overproduction of iron and coal led to a sharp drop in prices. Manufacturers laid off workers, unemployment soared. The Crisis of the 1840s Bankruptcies among the petite bourgeois increased. Germany suffered a financial crisis in textiles, industry in northern Italy, Austria and Bohemia suffered. The Crisis of the 1840s Such conditions led the middle classes to demand reform and a role in government while fear of massive disorder frightened the governments into giving in without much of a fight. (Jones 43-51) The Revolution of 1848 in France Specific Causes By the 1840s, Louis Philippe’s Orleanist regime was losing credibility with the bourgeoisie. Guizot, who dominated the government, faced opposition from Thiers, who was a reformer., but was pre-empted by republicans. The Revolution of 1848 in France This opposition was expressed by the Banqueteers campaign, which began as a call for reform The Revolution of 1848 in France Guizot had won the election of 1846, but widespread corruption was charged, and a series of scandals in the government weakened his position. The National Guard, made up of bourgeois youths, became alienated. His policies were seen as failed. The Revolution of 1848 in France For instance, although he increased the number of public school students from 1.9 to 3.5 million, the class of elementary school teachers resented their low pay [how amazing!!] The Revolution of 1848 in France His policy of avoiding colonial wars (in order not to stir up British hostility) was construed as unpatriotic. His government supported large railway loans, but speculation and overproduction of iron led to a financial crisis in 1847. The Revolution of 1848 in France Thiers desired electoral reform and to depose reform. The Banqueteer campaign was initially part of that strategy. However, on February 22, 1848, Guizot became alarmed at the demonstration, and called out troops, who fired upon the crowd. The result was the February Days. The Revolution of 1848 in France Barricades went up all over Paris, and soon the demonstrators were joined by units of the National Guard.. Social disorder became widespread. Louis Philippe abdicated. The Revolution of 1848 in France The new Provisional Government, led by Lamartine, was moderate in its make up (even Louis Blanc was, for a socialist, moderate). Lamartine’s Manifesto to Europe was intended to allay fears of a new round of revolutionary wars, but also indicated that his chief concerns were not social. The problems to be faced were finance, political consolidation, and social issues. The Revolution of 1848 in France Uncertainty made it impossible for the PG to re-establish financial stability; in fact, gold reserves fell, credit tightened, and the government attempted a new 45 centime tax on income which hurt small farmers and peasant proprietors. The Revolution of 1848 in France Politically, the PG instituted universal manhood suffrage. The results were not as expected. Giving peasants the vote meant giving the Church tremendous electoral influence. The election boiled down to a battle between a republican bureaucracy and clerical influence, with the Church winning. The new Constituent Assembly was weighted towards property. The Revolution of 1848 in France With property interests dominant, there was little likelihood of success socially. The great problem in the cities was unemployment. Louis Blanc proposed National Workshops, a public works program to alleviate unemployment. The Revolution of 1848 in France: Reaction In June 1848, the government began to fear popular revolution, led by the workers. When the National Workshops were dissolved, the barricades went up in Paris again. The Revolution of 1848 in France: Reaction This time, however, the middle classes were haunted by the spectre of working class violence (to paraphrase Marx) and the Army, commanded by Cavaignac, was used ruthlessly to crush the revolt. 3,000 were killed, and 11,000 arrested, with many being deported to Algeria. The Revolution of 1848 in France: Reaction The aftermath led to the rise of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as a popular conservative candidate with support from all social classes. The Bonaparte name reminded Frenchmen of their glory days, and further was associated with order. The Revolution of 1848 in France: Reaction Since he supported Church control of education, he received the support of the clergy. Furthermore, his opponent was Cavaignac, whose butchery in Paris made him unpopular with many. The Revolution of 1848 in France: Results They revolution intensified divisions within French society, and brought into power a regime at least as supportive of bourgeois interests as that of Louis Philippe.. The Revolution of 1848 in France: Results By 1851, Louis Napoleon had reimposed a considerable degree of repression, curried favor with the Church by sending French troops to defend Pope Pius IX in, and then staged a coup d’etat that proclaimed himself Emperor. Reasons for the Failure of the Revolutionaries The classic Marxist interpretation of the Revolution of 1848 sees the bourgeoisie and proletariat in a temporary alliance to remove Louis Philippe, but then quickly their interests diverge, with the July Days representing reaction. Reasons for the Failure of the Revolutionaries There is a great deal of evidence supporting this view, although the work of Rudé demonstrates that artisans among the demonstrators outnumbered workers by 2:1. The peasants are seen by the Marxists as supporting the Right. This is not entirely the case. Reasons for the Failure of the Revolutionaries Peasants in the more prosperous, northern departments, where farming was more modernized, tended to support the right, such as Louis Napoleon. Peasants in the poorer south, however, were often defending traditional privileges against modernization, and therefore tended Left. (Jones 52-65) The Revolutions of 1848 in the Hapsburg Lands Specific Causes The years immediately prior to the revolutions saw the Austrian government largely rudderless: the emperor, Ferdinand, was feeble minded and Metternich was forced to share power with others, particularly Kolowrat, who were very jealous of his influence. The Revolutions of 1848 in the Hapsburg Lands Austrian finances were (as usual) in very poor shape. The condition of the peasantry had been declining steadily. The Revolutions of 1848 in the Hapsburg Lands Not only the peasants but also rural landlords, especially the Magyars, desired an end to the robot. Stephen Szechenyi had argued that free labor was three times more efficient than forced labor. (Jones 68) The Revolutions of 1848 in the Hapsburg Lands Nationalism however, is the biggest problem for the Austrians – a problem that will not go away and which will eventually lead to the dissolution of the Austrian Empire in 1918. Magyars, Italians, Romanians, Croats, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, and Slovenes all pressed their own claims The Revolutions of 1848 in the Hapsburg Lands Last, a middle class liberal opposition had developed in Vienna which attacked Church privileges, and sought financial and fiscal reform, constitutional government, expanded suffrage, civil service reform, abolition of censorship, religious toleration, universal education and a citizen’s militia (like France’s National Guard). The Revolutions of 1848 in the Hapsburg Lands Louis Kossuth’s speech to the Hungarian Diet was translated and widely read. The liberals attracted the support of students. These liberals were, however, reformers, not revolutinaries, and were loyal to the dynasty. (69) The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Revolutionary Course News of the revolution in France led to demonstrations in Vienna. The government yielded with remarkable speed: Metternich fled on March 13, and the emperor agreed to a constitution. A civic guard was accepted, and censorship lifted. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Revolutionary Course In Budapest, Kossuth’s speech aroused a storm. Demonstrations broke out and a Magyar government, including Kossuth and Szechenyi. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Revolutionary Course The March Laws were passed, which abolished the robot, and provided for the election of a Diet based upon restrictive landholding. Knowledge of Magyar was a requirement for any candidate. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Revolutionary Course This meant, in effect, the domination of the great Magyar land lords over the Slavic minorities (thus replacing a German speaking elite with a Magyar speaking elite.). The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Revolutionary Course In Vienna, the students and middle class intellectuals became more assertive, causing the royal family to flee. Their Constituent Assembly abolished the robot. Ironically, at this point, the peasants are satisfied, and will not support the revolution farther. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Revolutionary Course Revolution in Prague also broke out. Czech nationalism was the product of middle class intellectuals such as Frantisek Palacky. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Revolutionary Course Bohemia was developing industrially with an entrepreneurial class that was mostly German-Jewish and with Germans dominating business, land, the clergy and the bureaucracy. Czech nationalism is, therefore, a response to foreign domination. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Revolutionary Course The Wenzelsbad Program espoused an end to the robot, and freedom of the press. Petitions to the Crown demanded a constitution and recognition for the Czech language in education and administration. (72) The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Revolutionary Course In June, the Pan-Slav Congress convened under Palacky’s chairmanship. Palacky’s demand was essentially for greater autonomy for the Slavic minorities within the empire (he was suspicious of the Russians). The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Reaction A student uprising in Prague coupled with worker unrest in the cotton mills gave the Imperial Governor, Windischgratz the opportunity to bombard the city. This success opened other opportunities for reaction The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Reaction At this point, the nationalist hostilities within the Empire serve to defeat the revolution. Kolowrat appointed the bitterly anti-Magyar Joseph Jellacic governor of Croatia. Jellacic invaded Hungary to suppress the Magyars. Kossuth mobilized resistance. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Reaction Word of this led to the October Days in Vienna, which caused the Court to flee again along with 100,000 bourgeois inhabitants. Windischgratz now besieged Vienna, killing 300-5,000. The October Days, like the June Days, are a turning point, with the bourgeoisie now opting for order. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Reaction The new government under Schwarzenberg now persuaded Ferdinand to abdicate in favor of Franz Josef. With Austrian armies successful in Italy, only Hungary still fought on. Franz Josef accepted a Russian offer of assistance, Windischgratz and the Russians together crush the Magyars. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Results Politically, the results are negligible. Socially, the great achievement is the abolition of the robot. The revolution was formative for the Italians, who achieved unity in 1859-1866 and for the Magyars, who achieve autonomy in 1867. The Revolutions in the Hapsburg Lands: Reasons for Failure The bourgeoisie and intellectuals were not united; the peasants uninterested after the robot was abolished, and mutual hostilities between the Magyars, Croats, Czechs, Romanians, Slovene, and Slovaks allowed the Austrians to pit one nationality against the other. (Jones 66-76) The Revolutions of 1848 in the German Lands: Specific Causes The liberal movement in Germany, as elsewhere, was the product of middleclass ambition. German grandes Bourgeoisie was unhappy with the fragmentation of the German market (they supported the Zollverein), banking and credit facilities, and resented the political monopoly of the hereditary aristocracy such as the Junkers in Prussia. (17) The Revolutions of 1848 in the German Lands: Specific Causes Two-thirds of the population was still peasants, and they were suffering severly, especially in the south. The German governments were weak, and not well led. Artisans and workers were also very restive. Eventually, the working class revolution will diverge from those of the bourgeois liberals. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course News of the revolution in France led to demonstrations, and the formation of a Pre-Parliament in Heidelberg, and later Frankfurt. This was to lead to a Constituent Assembly whose goal was a unified Germany under liberal auspices. The assembly was dominated by the bourgeoisie by virtue of property requirements to vote. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course Working class groups petitioned for a minimum wage, maximum working hours, rights of association, a progressive income tax, state education, free libraries and the regulation of the apprenticeship system. (Jones 79) The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course King Frederick William IV caved in under pressure of demonstrations in Berlin. The March Days fighting in Berlin humiliated the King and forced the conservatives back.. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course The king appointed a liberal government. However, the March Days not only made the Junkers more determined, it also made the middle classes fear social revolution. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course Unrest among German Handwerker (artisans) was significant. Led by August Stephen Born, they formed associations and societies whose goals were really defensive: The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course “ ‘There is no greater enemy of the petty bourgeoisie and of the labouring classes, no greater enemy of the solidarity of the small trades than these aliens [i.e. Jews] . . . . Their heart is the money-bag.’ “ (Jones 83) The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course The Industrial Code produced by the Artisan Congress was strongly anti-free enterprise. This, of course, ran very counter to bourgeois values. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course Although they supported typical liberal issues, such as equality before the law, careers open to talent, inviolability of personal libery, freedom of the press, the Frankfurt Assembly was badly divided. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course The issue of whether Germany should include the non-German Hapsburg lands or not; whether the government should be democratic-republican, secular, or federal, what power the King should have. (Jones 84) The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course Schleswig-Holstein revealed liberal weaknesses. The duchies were claimed by the Danish crown, but Prussia supported the claims of the German Duke of Augustenburg. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Revolutionary Course When King Frederick VII announced his intention to absorb the duchies, the liberals protested and turned to Prussia for help. Great Britain and Russia however intervened, forcing the Prussians to back down. The result was a split between the liberals and Prussia–but it also appeared as if the liberals were incapable of actually conducting a policy The Revolutions in the German Lands: Reaction In Berlin, the Junkers succeeded in bringing the weak Friedrich Wilhelm IV into line. He dismissed his liberal ministers. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Reaction Meantime, the Frankfurt liberals broke with the Handwerker [artisans], who pushed for restoration of guilds, compulsory elementary education and a progressive income tax. They were now almost completely isolated. In March 1849, they offered the crown of Germany to Friedrich Wilhelm, who rejected it. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Reaction Friedrich Wilhelm still had dreams of German hegemony; he proposed an Erfurt Assembly to forward those ambitions. The Austrians were not amused; they force Friedrich Wilhelm to back down at the “Humiliation of Olmutz” The Revolutions in the German Lands: Results For most German nationalists, liberalism had been discredited. The groundwork had been laid for Bismarck’s brand of autocratic nationalism. The Revolutions in the German Lands: Reasons for Failure “The revolution failed because there was no common ground among the revolutionaries.” (Jones 87) (Jones 77-88) The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Specific Causes The most prosperous regions were Piedmont-Sardinia, Lombardy and Venetia. The Hapsburgs had placed the heaviest taxes on Lombardy and Venetia, which angered the Italian grandes bourgeoisie. (18) The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Specific Causes Social unrest had begun in 1847, with the revolution in Palermo which forced Ferdinand II into granting a constitution. Other clashes had occurred in Milan and in Tuscany against Austrian troops in January. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Specific Causes The cities of Milan and Turin were growing rapidly in the first decades of the 19th century; most other Italian cities were suffering from economic stagnation. In all cities, the petite bourgeoisie formed a very large segment, while the upper bourgeoisie was relatively quite small. (Jones 89-90) The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Specific Causes Living conditions in the cities were among the poorest in Europe (with a life expectancy of only 24 in Naples. (90) A very large proportion of the population was engaged in agriculture, and Italian agriculture was inefficient and in decline. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Specific Causes There was pressure in the north to convert Italy’s agricultural system from an essentially feudal system to a capitalist one (that is, from subsistence to marketoriented farming). This brought its own disruptions and hardships. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Specific Causes Almost everywhere, agriculture alone was not enough to sustain the peasants–they desperately needed some other source of income, such as day labor or cottage industry. In Lombardy and Venetia, failed harvests in 1846-7 made the heavy Austrian taxes and Austrian conscription into the army extremely unpopular. (91) The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Specific Causes When the revolutions break out, peasants will flock to the cities in order to overthrow Austrian taxation and conscription. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Specific Causes Weak agriculture meant wild price fluctuations in the cities. (In Venice, wheat doubled in price and corn increased 77% between 1846-48) (91-92) which led to food riots. In the cities, there was growing conflict within the bourgeoisie between merchants and traders on one hand (representing capitalism) and artisans (representing feudalism) on the other. (92) The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Specific Causes Politically, the urban intelligentsia demanded reforms within the Italian states, and the eviction of the Austrians The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Revolutionary Course King Charles Albert of PiedmontSardinia granted liberals a constitution in 1847. Although not himself liberal, he desired Piedmontese expansion, and ultimately was prepared to fight Austria in order to get it. He therefore hesitated to identify himself with the liberals, but was certainly a nationalis. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Revolutionary Course Revolution broke out in Milan in March 1848, forcing Austrian Marshal Radetzky to evacuate the city. The Milanese asked Piedmont to intervene, and, pressured by Count Camilo Cavour, Charles Albert agrees. A plebescite confirmed Charles Albert’s leadership in Lombardy. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Revolutionary Course In Venice, the workers in the Arsenal had revolted, and Daniele Manin proclaimed a Venetian republic. The new government here, like Milan, was made up of bourgeois moderates, and Piedmontese help was again asked. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Revolutionary Course Charles Albert for his part was afraid both of the nationalist revolutions becoming politically radical and of French interention. Trying to control the movement, he declares war on Austria. Pope Pius IX refused to support such a war, and the Piedmontese are badly beaten by Radetzky at Custozza. In the south, Ferdinand repossessed Palermo by force. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Reaction Radetzky then initiated a counterrevolution in Lombardy. In the Papal States, the defeat of Piedmont led to intensificaiton of radical (democratic) pressures, culminating in the Pope fleeing Rome and a Roman republic being proclaimed by Mazzini in 1849. A republic was also declared in Tuscany. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Reaction The republics however, were much too weak to stand against Austrian armies. Rather than see Austrian troops in Rome (and also to curry favor with the Church at home), Louis Napoleon of France sent trrops to Rome. The Roman republic was crushed. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Reaction Radetzky then besieged Venice, bringing the revolutions to an end. Charles Albert was required to abdicate. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Results King Victor Emmanuel of Piedmont proved to be more liberal than his father, and wins the support of a growing commercial class. His minister, Cavour, determined that Italy could be united only with outside assistance, and began to plan accordingly. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Reasons for Failure Revolutionary leadership was weak. Leaders such as Mazzini were theorists, with no experience of rule themselves, and were afraid of mob rule. The defense of property and maintenance of order are issues that did not resonate with either urban artisans or peasants. The Revolutions in the Italian Peninsula: Reasons for Failure After initial defeats, the Austrians under Radetzky were able to mount a counterattack once victories in Bohemia allowed the reinforcement of their Italian garrisons.(Jones 89-97) The Revolutions of 1848: Aftermath Autocracy was strengthened in France, Prussia and Austria. However, the governments recognized that at least some efforts had to be made toward modernization, even if conservatives kept firm control over power. In France, universal manhood suffrage was granted. Even in central Europe, the last vestiges of feudalism were abolished. The Revolutions of 1848: Aftermath Strong governments in France and Prussia probably encouraged further industrial and economic growth. The Revolutions of 1848: Aftermath Nationalist leaders such as Cavour and Bismarck emerge, ready to avoid the mistakes of 1848 in order to achieve the unification of their respective countries. (Jones 98-107) Works Cited This handout, as you may have noticed, is a glorified book report (or to look at it another way, a very lengthy indirect quotation since I have essentially summarized the entire book). The only book cited therefore, is Works Cited Jones, Peter. The 1848 Revolutions. 2nd Edition. NY: Longmans, 1991. The End!!!!!