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What is computer ?
A device that computes, especially a
programmable electronic machine that
performs high-speed mathematical or
logical operations or that assembles,
stores, correlates, or otherwise processes
information. One who computes.
It’s a Programmable machine that can store,
retrieve, and process data. Today's
computers have at least one CPU that
performs most calculations and includes a
main memory, a control unit, and an
arithmetic logic unit.
Charles Babbage (1791-1871)
Computer can classified in to five types according to
generations i.e time period
. First generation computer
. Second generation computer
. Third generation computer
. Fourth generation computer
. Fifth generation computer
. First generation computer
Period : 1945 – 1956
Inviter : Lee de Forest
Main processing device : Vacuum tubes
Vacuum tube
Vacuum tube
Vacuum tube
Vacuum tube
Vacuum tubes
. First generation computer
Advantages :
. It was only electronic device
. First device to hold memory
Disadvantages :
. Too bulky i.e large in size
. Vacuum tubes burn frequently
. They were producing heat
. Maintenance problems
Too bulky i.e large in size
Vacuum tubes burn frequently
. Second generation computer
Period : 1956 – 1963
Inviter : William Shockley
Main processing device : Transistor
Storage media : Magnetic disc
Transistor board
. Second generation
Advantages :
. Size reduced considerably
. The very fast
. Very much reliable
Disadvantages :
. They over heated quickly
. Maintenance problems
. Third generation computer
Period : 1964 – 1971
Inviter : Jack Kilby
Robert Noyce
Main processing device : IC (integrated circuit)
Storage media : Floppies
IC (integrated circuit)
ICs (integrated circuits)
IC (integrated circuit)
. Third generation computer
Advantages :
. ICs are very small in size
. Improved performance
. Production cost cheap
Disadvantages :
. ICs are sophisticated
. Fourth generation computer
Period : 1971– present
Inviter : Ted Hoff
Main processing device : ICs with VLSI
(Very Large Scale Integration)
Storage media : Floppies, CDs.
ICs with VLSI
(Very Large Scale Integration)
. Fourth generation computer
Advantages :
. It is a compact
. Less power consumption
. Production cost is cheap
Disadvantages :
. No artificial intelligent.
. Fifth generation computer
Period : present and beyond
Main processing device : ICs with parallel
Storage media : Video disks
Advantages :
. Artificial intelligence
. Expert system
. First generation computer . Second generation computer
Vacuum tubes
. Third generation computer . Fourth generation computer
. Fifth generation computer
ICs with parallel
ICs with VLSI
Computer is a group of electronic devices used to
process the data.
The characteristics of a computer are:
1. Speed
2. Reliability
3. Memory capacity
4. Accuracy
5. Automation
6. Functionality
7. Tirelessness
1. Speed: computer process the data at an unimaginable
speed. The speed of the computer ranges up to Nano
2. Reliability: The next important characteristic of a
computer is its reliability. we can always rely on the
information given by a computer.
3. Memory capacity: The memory capacity of a computer
is measured in bits and bytes. Large amount of the data
can be stored in computer and retrieved. Memory
capacity of the computer ranges in Giga bytes.
4. Accuracy: Accuracy of the computer is very
high it performs calculation with greater accuracy
in less time.
5. Automation: A computer allows automation
for any process designed in the form of a
program. A program can be executed any
number of times to repeat the process.
6. functionality: computer can performs many
kinds of jobs. It not only process the data but
also can be Used for playing music, movies, and
printing jobs.
It finds its applications in all most all the fields.
7. Tirelessness: A computer never get tired.