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A History of Computing
An Adventure in Human
Inventiveness
“Napier’s Bones” were moveable rods that
allowed the operator to multiply, divide, and
calculate square and cube roots.
George Boole
1815 - 1864
Self taught mathematician who developed
Boolean algebra, the basis of the digital
computer circuit.
The ENIAC used
18,000 vacuum
tubes and
required a pair of
these tubes
joined in a
particular manner
to hold in memory
a single bit of
data.
Generations of Computers
•
•
•
•
•
Early 50s
First Generation
Mid 1950s
Second Generation
Early 1960s
Third Generation
1970- 1990s
Fourth Generation
1990s-present Fifth Generation
Early 50s First Generation
• Vacuum tubes
• Pioneering work on
magnetic storage
• Data held on tapes and
drums in serial manner
Mid 1950s Second Generation
• Transistors replaced
vacuum tubes
• Conducted electricity
more efficiently
• Consumed less energy
• Needed less space
• Generated less heat
• Didn’t burn out
Invention of IBM 360 in 1964
began Third Generation
• Integrated circuits on a chip
• Magnetic disks replaced magnetic tape
as storage device
• Video display/keyboard replaced
punched card input
• Large-scale integration (LSI) put
hundreds of thousands of transistors on a
silicon chip
• LSI led to computers in cameras, TVs
and cars
1442N1
S/360
2260
1403N1
2305
2401
2803
2321
LCS
IBM SYSTEM/360
1443
2821
2311
2841
1052
1072
Card reader/ punch
CPU, model 30(?)
Display terminal
Impact printer
Drum storage
Tape storage
Tape control unit
Data cell storage
Large core storage
device
Impact printer
Control unit
Disk storage
DASD control unit
Console typewriter
Console station
1970-1990s Fourth Generation
• 1970 – Intel 4004
Microprocessor used
in calculators
• 1974 – Intel 8080
capable of running a
CPU
• 1977 – Apple II and
VisiCalc
• 1981 – IBM PC
1990s-2000s Fifth Generation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Incredibly fast chips
Artificial Intelligence
Voice synthesizers
Wireless networks
Parallel processing
Flat panel displays
Touch screens &
handwriting recognition
History of Computers in
Education
• Before the Microcomputer
– Programmed Instruction
– Teaching Machines
– Computer Assisted Instruction
• The time of the Microcomputer
– Computer Interest Groups (CIGs)
– Conferences
– Organizations/Magazines/Journals
B.F. Skinner developed a
Teaching Machine to facilitate
the use of Programmed
Instruction, the forerunner of
computer tutorials used today
Programming and Literacy
• 1980s movement to teach programming
– BASIC
– Logo and Constructivism
– Seymour Papert: Mindstorms
• Computer Literacy
– Ability to understand and use computers
– Computer Literacy courses for future teachers
Networking and the Internet
• Connecting computers and peripherals to a
communication system
• U.S. Dept of Defense created Internet
• MOSAIC navigator tool
• Graphical User Interfaces
• Distance Education
Handheld Computing Devices
• Palm Pilot and Blackberry
- store and retrieve information
- access files on a remote computer
- download data to upload later
- uses unique strokes / keyboard to input data
• Cell phone + digital camera + web browser
What Will They Think of Next?
• Introduce yourself to a partner
• Talk about the technology you use
• Dream up a cool new techno device