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Transcript
Chapter 15: Societies & Empires in Africa
• 800-1500
• Throughout history
different groups of
Africans have
found different
ways to organize
themselves to
meet their political,
economic, & social
needs.
• In the varied
regions of Africa,
climate &
topography
influenced how
each community
developed.
How did Geography & Climate influence development
in Africa?
• Great variety
– Climate
– Topography
– Landforms
North & Central African Societies:
Hunter-Gatherer
•
formed close-knit
family groups
• Oldest in world
• Still around
• Provide clues
about ancient times
Hunter-Gatherer Societies
• Semi-nomadic
• Few
possessions,
distinctive
hunting
techniques
“Stateless” Societies
• Power not centralized
• Based on lineage groups
not individual ruler
– Family groups based
on a common
ancestor
– Living members
– Past generations
– Future generations
– Strong loyalty
• balance authority among
lineages of equal power
• may be
– patri-lineal
– matri-lineal
• Men usually hold
positions of authority
Muslim States
• Islam spread
across N. Africa• Rulers converted
• Government
based on Islamic
Law (Sharia)
• Muslim rulers
relied on religious
scholars as
government
advisors
Berbers
•
•
•
•
•
Desert, mountain dwellers
Indigenous to N. Africa
Accepted Islam
Maintained Berber Identity
Almoravids & Almohads found empires that united N. Africa
(Maghrib)
Impact of Berber Rule
• Spread N.
African culture
• Stability &order
• Unity through
Islamic
teaching
• North/South
Trade
flourished
West African Civilizations
• While Berbers built
empires in N. Africa,
three powerful
empire flourished in
West Africa in the
Sahel-the savanna
region just south of
the Sahara
• Grew strong by
controlling trade
Empire of Ghana
• Around 200 AD, trade
across Sahara was
infrequent
• Berbers began to use
camels
• Travel great distance
without water
• Taxed trade-grew
wealthy
Gold-Salt Trade
•
•
•
Arab & Berber traders crossed desert loaded w/salt, cloth, weapons,
manufactured goods
African traders brought gold north
Merchants met in trade cities, exchanged goods, officials collected tax
& ensured fair weights and provided protection from bandits
Land of Gold
• By 800, Ghana was an empire
• King controlled trade, large
army, demanded taxes and
gifts from chiefs of surrounding
lands.
• King controlled supply of gold,
kept price high
• King was religious leader,
judge, military commander
• Head of government
bureaucracy
Islamic Influences
• Islam spread through trade
• Ghana’s rulers/elites converted
to Islam
• Common people kept
traditional beliefs/practices
• Islam spread literacy
• Ghana lost power when
Almoravids disrupted gold-salt
trade
Empire of Mali
• By 1235 the kingdom of Mali
had emerged.
• Its founders were Mandespeaking people, who lived
south of Ghana.
• Mali’s wealth was also built on
gold.
Sundiata Conquers an Empire
• A powerful king named
Sundiata ruled Mali from
around 1230-1255 AD. He
became known as a mansa, or
emperor.
• He led the people in
conquering and expanding his
kingdom to be as great as
Ghana had been.
Mansa Musa Expands
Mali (1312-1337)
• Greatest king of Mali
• developed gold/salt
trade-kingdom
became very powerful
& rich
• Made hajj to Meccaupon return built
many mosques in
Timbuktu
• Attracted Muslim
judges, doctors,
religious leaders
scholars
Ibn Battuta: 1352
• Muslim legal scholar
• Traveled throughout
Muslim world -27 years
• Wrote a journal
• Praised the people of
Mali for their study of
Qur’an
• Criticized lack of strict
practice (women did not
veil)
• Within 50 years, gold
trade shifted to new
fields in East
• Mali weakened
Empire of Songhai
• As Mali declined, Songhai east built an army & extended
territory-gained control of trade routes. Gao was the capital.
Songhai’s Powerful Leaders
• Sunni Ali
– Built a professional
army
• Askia Muhammad
– Set up good
government
Other Peoples of West Africa: Hausa
• Hausa City-States
Other Peoples of West Africa: Yoruba
Other Peoples of West Africa: Benin
Eastern City-States & Southern Empires
•
•
•
In the 3rd century, Aksum
traded extensively. From
Red Sea it traded with
Arabia, Persia, India &
Rome
Muslims cut them off from
their port so they moved
their capital south
Other cities on East coast
were thriving from Indian
Ocean trade
East Coast Trade
Cities
Kilwa
Portuguese Conquest
Islamic Influences
Enslavement of Africans
Southern Africa & Great Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe
Mutapa Empire