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Transcript
Middle East 600-1300
Islam
• As Monotheism
spread a new religion
emerged.
• 610 CE Mohamed
met the Angel Gabriel
who told him he was
the last prophet of
God.
The Five Pillars
• Shahadahdeclaration of faith-
•
•
•
•
“there is no God but Allah
and Mohamed is his
prophet”
Prayer- 5 times a day
toward Mecca.
Alms- give to poor
Fasting- During Ramadan
Pilgrimage- must go on
Hajj once in their life
•. Classical
Islamic tenets
forbidding the
representation of human
beings in art. To
celebrate Mohammed
elaborate script was
designed serving as
decoration.
•Split between Sunni and
Shii
•Shii Shada"There is no god but
Alláh, Muhammad is the
Messenger of Alláh, Alí is the
Friend of Alláh. The Successor of
the Messenger of Alláh And his
first Caliph."
Continued difficulties
• 636- 1099 Arab
Muslims rule
Palestine
• 750-754 Attempt at
unity fails- Jafar AsSiddiq- a Shii spiritual
leader and
descendent of
Mohammed was
named Caliph but
was then murdered
Turks
• Many saw themselves as
ghazi or warriors for
Islam
• Osman ‫عثمان بن أرطغرل‬
(named othman by west)
led Ghazis- Warriors of
Islam- against rivals
• His son Orkhan became
the regions first Sultan or
“one with power”
• Establishes the Ottoman
Empire
Syria/Jerusalem
• 1099- Seljuk Turks
control Syria
• 1187 Saladin the Kurd
expels Crusaders from
Jerusalem after declaring
jihad (holy war) and takes
Egypt
• Saladin allows Jews to
resettle in Jerusalem
• 1260 Egyptian Muslims
(Mamelukes) take Syria
Iraq
• Caliph: Harud
Hashim
• Grand Bizarre:
Market places
(Silk, Spices, Ivory)
• Baghdad center of
Commerce
Summary Question
1) What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
2) Who is the founder of Islam?
3) Where was the Ottoman Empire
established?
4) Why did the Sunni and Shii split?
Discussion Question
• Muhammad did not think that government
and religion should be separated as we
separate it today? Should it be?
Extra Credit
• World History Short: A Court singer and a
merchant
Court of The Lions- the Alhambra
• Built Between 1238
and 1358
• Arabic Alhambra =
Red
• Built after the
conquest of Granada
• Lions made out of
marble and basin out
of Alabaster