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Middle East 600-1300
• As Monotheism
spread a new religion
• 610 CE Mohamed
met the Angel Gabriel
who told him he was
the last prophet of
The Five Pillars
• Shahadahdeclaration of faith-
“there is no God but Allah
and Mohamed is his
Prayer- 5 times a day
toward Mecca.
Alms- give to poor
Fasting- During Ramadan
Pilgrimage- must go on
Hajj once in their life
•. Classical
Islamic tenets
forbidding the
representation of human
beings in art. To
celebrate Mohammed
elaborate script was
designed serving as
•Split between Sunni and
•Shii Shada"There is no god but
Alláh, Muhammad is the
Messenger of Alláh, Alí is the
Friend of Alláh. The Successor of
the Messenger of Alláh And his
first Caliph."
Continued difficulties
• 636- 1099 Arab
Muslims rule
• 750-754 Attempt at
unity fails- Jafar AsSiddiq- a Shii spiritual
leader and
descendent of
Mohammed was
named Caliph but
was then murdered
• Many saw themselves as
ghazi or warriors for
• Osman ‫عثمان بن أرطغرل‬
(named othman by west)
led Ghazis- Warriors of
Islam- against rivals
• His son Orkhan became
the regions first Sultan or
“one with power”
• Establishes the Ottoman
• 1099- Seljuk Turks
control Syria
• 1187 Saladin the Kurd
expels Crusaders from
Jerusalem after declaring
jihad (holy war) and takes
• Saladin allows Jews to
resettle in Jerusalem
• 1260 Egyptian Muslims
(Mamelukes) take Syria
• Caliph: Harud
• Grand Bizarre:
Market places
(Silk, Spices, Ivory)
• Baghdad center of
Summary Question
1) What are the 5 pillars of Islam?
2) Who is the founder of Islam?
3) Where was the Ottoman Empire
4) Why did the Sunni and Shii split?
Discussion Question
• Muhammad did not think that government
and religion should be separated as we
separate it today? Should it be?
Extra Credit
• World History Short: A Court singer and a
Court of The Lions- the Alhambra
• Built Between 1238
and 1358
• Arabic Alhambra =
• Built after the
conquest of Granada
• Lions made out of
marble and basin out
of Alabaster