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LESSONS LEARNED FROM
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS.
JAPAN.
PART 2: TYPHOONS, FLOODS,
AND LANDSLIDES
Walter Hays, Global Alliance for
Disaster Reduction, Vienna,
Virginia, USA
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE JAPAN’S
COMMUNITIES AT RISK
EARTHQUAKES/TSUNAMIS
GOAL: DISASTER
RESILIENCE
ENACT AND IMPLEMENT
POLICIES HAVING HIGH
BENEFIT/COST FOR
COMMUNITY RESILIENCE
TYPHOONS
FLOODS
LANDSLIDES
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
JAPAN
TYPHOONS
THE JAPAN’S IS AT RISK EVERY YEAR
FROM TROPICAL STORMS AND
TYPHOONS FORMING IN THE WESTERN
PACIFIC OCEAN, ESPECIALLY IF THEY
CAUSE DEVASTATING FLOODING AND
LANDSLIDES AFTER LANDFALL
TYPHOON RISK
•TYPHOON HAZARDS
•BLDG. INVENTORY
•VULNERABILITY
•LOCATION
DATA BASES
AND INFORMATION
ACCEPTABLE RISK
RISK
UNACCEPTABLE RISK
JAPAN’S
GOAL: TYPHOON
DISASTER RESILIENCE
COMMUNITIES
POLICY OPTIONS
HAZARDS:
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING
TECTONIC DEFORMATION
TSUNAMI RUN UP
AFTERSHOCKS
• PREPAREDNESS
•PROTECTION
•EARLY WARNING
•EMERGENCY RESPONSE
•RECOVERY and
RECONSTRUCTION
Physics Of A Typhoon
HAZARDS OF A SEVERE WINDSTORM
(AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)
• WIND FIELD [CAT 1 (55 mph) TO CAT 5+
(155 mph or greater)]
• DEBRIS
• STORM SURGE/FLOODS
• HEAVY PRECIPITATION/FLOODS
• LANDSLIDES (MUDFLOWS)
• COSTAL EROSION
CAUSES
OF
DAMAGE
WIND PENETRATING
BUILDING ENVELOPE
UPLIFT OF ROOF SYSTEM
FLYING DEBRIS
TYPHOONS
“DISASTER
LABORATORIES”
STORM SURGE
IRREGULARITIES IN
ELEVATION AND PLAN
SITING PROBLEMS
FLOODING AND LANDSLIDES
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT
DISASTER RESILIENCE
• ALL TYPHOONS
• WITHOUT
ADEQUATE
PROTECTION, HIGH
VELOCITY WIND
WILL LIFT THE
ROOF OFF OF NONENGINEERED
BUILDINGS.
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT
DISASTER RESILIENCE
• ALL TYPHOONS.
• DISASTERINTELLIGENT
COMMUNITIES USE
TIMELY EARLY
WARNING BASED ON
CRITICAL INFORMATION TO EVACUATE
PEOPLE AND
PREPARE.
LESSONS LEARNED FOR
DISASTER RESILIENCE
• ALL TYPHOONS
• CAPACITY FOR
INTELLIGENT
EMERGENCY
RESPONSE IS
ESSENTIAL FOR
COMMUNITY
RESILIENCE.
NOTABLE PAST TYPHOONS
IMPACTING JAPAN
“THE WORST”
Super Typhoon Vera,
September 21-28, 1959
Killed 5,098; Injured 38,021
TYPHOON TALAS:
AUG. 25 – SEPT. 5 2011
SUPERTYPHOON VERA
With heavy storm surge, rain, and
winds of 160 mph, Vera slammed
into the southeastern coast of
Japan in Wakayama Prefecture and
then proceeded northeast across
Honshū, causing widespread wind
damage and flooding
THE WORST IMPACTS WERE
CAUSED BY HEAVY STORM
SURGE AND FLOODING,
ESPECIALLY IN NAGOYA
CAUSES
OF RISK
LOSS OF FUNCTION OF
STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN
INUNDATION
INTERACTION WITH
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
FLOODS
CASE HISTORIES
STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS
DAMAGE FROM WATER
WATER BORNE DISEASES
(HEALTH PROBLEMS)
EROSION AND MUDFLOWS
CONTAMINATION OF GROUND
WATER
2011
Just 6 months after the historic
March 11th earthquake-tsunami
TRACKS OF 2011’S TYPHOONS
TYPHOON TALAS:
AUG. 25 – SEPT. 5 2011
TYPHOON TALAS
• Talas, which left 26 dead, was
the worst to hit Japan since
2004, when 98 people were
killed or reported missing.
TYPHOON TALAS
• One-half million were advised
to evacuate to shelters
• Thousands were stranded as
rain washed out bridges,
railways and roads and
landslides blocked access
TYPHOON TALAS: SEARCH
AND RESCUE AFTER LANDSLIDE
CAUSES
OF
DAMAGE
SITING AND BUILDING ON
UNSTABLE SLOPES
SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE
TO FALLS
SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE
TO TOPPLES
LANDSLIDES
SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE
TO SPREADS
CASE HISTORIES
SOIL AND ROCK
SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOWS
PRECIPITATION THAT
TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE
SHAKING
GROUND SHAKING THAT
TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE
2012
22 STORM TRACKS AS OF
OCTOBER 21, 2012
GUCHOL: 1ST TYPHOON OF
SEASON: JUNE 19, 2012
GUCHOL: A CAT I STORM
• Guchol caused heightened
concerns for safety at the
Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant,
damaged earlier in the March 2011
earthquake and tsunami.
GUCHOL: A RAINMAKER
• High waves, heavy rain (9 cm/hr)
and strong winds impacted the
south coast of Honshu as far east
as Nagoya and the Izu peninsula,
southwest of Tokyo.
• Evacuation advisory issued for
10,000 residents.
SANBA: A SUPER TYPHOON, ENTOUTE TO
LANDFALL ON KOREAN PINUNSULA
JAPAN: IMPACTS OF SANBA
• Heavy rain and high velocity winds
impacted southwestern Japan.
• The rain caused flooding and
landslides.
• 67,000 homes in Japan lost power.
TYPHOON JELAWAT’S PATH:
SEPT. 20 - OCT. 1, 2012
TYPHOON JELAWAT:
SEPTEMBER 28
WIND OVERTURNED A VEHICLE IN
NAHA CITY, OKINAWA
The wind field that reached
300 kph when Typhoon
Jelawat jumped over
Okinawa decreased to 120
kph when it reached Tokyo .
LESSONS LEARNED FOR
DISASTER RESILIENCE
• ALL NATURAL
HAZARDS
• CAPACITY FOR
RECOVERY AND
RECONSTRUCTION
IS ESSENTIAL FOR
COMMUNITY
RESILIENCE.
TOWARDS TYPHOON DISASTER
RESILIENCE
RISK ASSESSMENT
• VULNERABILITY
• COST
• EXPOSURE
TYPHOONS
• EVENT
EXPECTED
LOSS
• BENEFIT
•CONSEQUENCES
POLICY ASSESSMENT
POLICY
ADOPTION