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H appy Planet I ndex Results
4%
6%
6%
100+
4%
90-100
4%
6%
8%
80-90
70-80
60-70
50-60
31%
31%
40-50
30-40
20-30
Global average was 52.6
Class average was 62.2
Life expectancy
Life satisfaction
Ecological footprint
Living better, using less = Long, healthy lives X Satisfied lives
Resources consumed
http://www.happyplanetindex.org/explore/global/index.html
Outgassing from volcanoes also helped produce the
water in the Earth’s ocean basins.
Led to the initial development of the HYDROSPHERE.
Together, the Lithosphere, Atmosphere and Hydrosphere
support the BIOSPHERE.
Atmosphere of the Earth is a thin and fragile layer.
Thermal Energy of the Earth
Heat led to the initial differentiation of the Earth.
Produced core, mantle and crust.
Thermal energy is still being moved from place to
place in the Earth.
Goes from warm to cool areas.
Methods of Thermal Energy Transfer
1. CONDUCTION
Small particles (atoms) get excited by external heat.
Vibrate rapidly.
Collide with other particles and sets them in motion.
Not an efficient way to move heat in the Earth.
Rock is a very POOR conductor of heat.
Methods of Thermal Energy Transfer
2. CONVECTION
Material moves from one place to another, taking
heat with it.
When Earth got hot enough that parts melted or
softened enough to flow, convection occurred.
Heat was transferred by rising fluids.
Much better method of transferring thermal energy.
Rising hot material caused first volcanic eruptions.