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H appy Planet I ndex Results 4% 6% 6% 100+ 4% 90-100 4% 6% 8% 80-90 70-80 60-70 50-60 31% 31% 40-50 30-40 20-30 Global average was 52.6 Class average was 62.2 Life expectancy Life satisfaction Ecological footprint Living better, using less = Long, healthy lives X Satisfied lives Resources consumed http://www.happyplanetindex.org/explore/global/index.html Outgassing from volcanoes also helped produce the water in the Earth’s ocean basins. Led to the initial development of the HYDROSPHERE. Together, the Lithosphere, Atmosphere and Hydrosphere support the BIOSPHERE. Atmosphere of the Earth is a thin and fragile layer. Thermal Energy of the Earth Heat led to the initial differentiation of the Earth. Produced core, mantle and crust. Thermal energy is still being moved from place to place in the Earth. Goes from warm to cool areas. Methods of Thermal Energy Transfer 1. CONDUCTION Small particles (atoms) get excited by external heat. Vibrate rapidly. Collide with other particles and sets them in motion. Not an efficient way to move heat in the Earth. Rock is a very POOR conductor of heat. Methods of Thermal Energy Transfer 2. CONVECTION Material moves from one place to another, taking heat with it. When Earth got hot enough that parts melted or softened enough to flow, convection occurred. Heat was transferred by rising fluids. Much better method of transferring thermal energy. Rising hot material caused first volcanic eruptions.