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Transcript
Güç Elektroniği / N. Abut
GÜÇ ELEKTRONİĞİ ÖZEL UYGULAMALARI
YILİÇİ ÇALIŞMASI
12 VOLT DC POWER SUPPLY
THEORY OF OPERATION, SCHEMATIC, CIRCUIT BOARD LAYOUT
Variable 3 - 24 Volt / 3 Amp Power Supply
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2 Watt Switching Power Supply
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Whistle On - Whistle Off
2 Cell Lithium Ion Charger
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Low Frequency Sinewave Generators
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6.6 W, single output (3.3 V) Flyback converter circuit diagram
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Akü şarj Devresi
Automatic 9V Battery Charger»Automatic 9V battery charger
This is the diagram of Automatic 9V Battery Charger circuit. The circuit designed by Jan
Hamer, translated by Tony Van Roon dan republished in this circuit diagram site. The circuit
details are based on european standards. 120E, 150E, etc. The ‘E’ just stands for Ohms so 120
ohm, 150 ohm. The original circuit specified the HEF type of CMOS IC’s that are not readily
on the market in most of worldwide country. So just get any other kind of CMOS chip like the
MC4011, MC4020, MC4047 from Motorola. Any other type will work fine too. The BC548B
is replaceble by a NTE123AP (NOTE: ensure it’s the ‘AP’ type, the typical NTE123A is a
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total different transistor), ECG123AP, and also the 2N3904 will be work. Watch for the
proper pin locations because the BCE may be reversed with this european type. The LM317T
is a TO-220 type and replaceble with a ECG956 or NTE956. The LM339N could be changed
using a ECG834 or NTE834
Automatic 9V battery charger circuit diagram
Main page of the image: Automatic 9V Battery Charger circuit diagram
300W Power Inverter Circuit Here is a schematic 300W power
inverter with 12 volt batteries as a source. This inverter is
controlled by 555 timer
Here is a schematic 300W power inverter with 12 volt batteries as a source. This inverter is
controlled by 555 timer and CD4017 decade counter. You should try to build this inverter, because
it can be used to power load 300W. With the power was sufficient to illuminate a few light bulbs at
night for your camping needs.
This 300W power inverter is quite simple but powerful, efficient, and stable. The inverter is built
using a 10V center tap transformer. A 555 Timer IC and a 4017 decade counter IC used to produce
a modified sine wave of 50 Hz.
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300W Power Inverter
Timer 555 will produce a frequency of 200 Hz (see the schematic for more info) by adjusting the
potentiometer value of 500K. CD4017 produces the pulse trains on pin 2 and pin 7 of CD4017 is
connected to the gates of the MOSFET STP36NF06L. It then directed to the transformer primary
side. There will be 220V AC at the transformer secondary side.
In order for the inverter system can run to efficiently use the cooling fan, even though the heatsink
is still needed.
LOW POWER 12,000 VOLT POWER SUPPLY
If you need about 12,000 volts DC for an ion generator this circuit might be the
ticket. It draws power from the 120vac power line but it uses a small 6KV
camera flash trigger coil. The output signal is isolated from the power line.
Although the circuit can only deliver about 5uA of current it can produce
dangerous shocks, so be careful.
Click on Drawing Below to view PDF version of Schematic
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Error fix: Pin 7 and 2 were reversed. Original pinout was correct.
Parts List:
R1 = 10K
R2 = 100K
R3 = 100 ohm
R4 = 50K potmeter, Linear
C1,C2 = 0.1uF
C3 = 0.01uF
C4 = 2700uF
Q1 = TIP41A, NPN, or equivalent transistor
Q2 = TIP42A, PNP, or equivalent transistor
L1 = 1uH
T1 = Filament transformer, your choice
This DC-to-AC inverter schematic produces an AC output at line frequency and voltage. The 555 is configured
as a low-frequency oscillator, tunable over the frequency range of 50 to 60 Hz by Frequency potentiometer R4.
The 555 feeds its output (amplified by Q1 and Q2) to the input of transformer T1, a reverse-connected filament
transformer with the necessary step-up turns ratio. Capacitor C4 and coil L1 filter the input to T1, assuring that it
is effectively a sine wave. Adjust the value of T1 to your voltage. The output (in watts) is up to you by selecting
different components.
Input voltage is anywhere from +5V to +15Volt DC, adjust the 2700uF cap's working voltage accordingly.
Replacement types for Q1 are: TIP41B, TIP41C, NTE196, ECG196, etc. Replacement types for Q2 are: TIP42B,
TIP42C, NTE197, ECG197, etc. Don't be afraid to use another type of similar specs, it's only a transistor... ;-)
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If the whole thing is working, good. If not, relax and don't get frustrated. Do the following checks:
1) You have connected the filament transformer in REVERSE yes?
2) If not, disconnect the power and reverse. If you have, disconnect the transformer and measure the
voltage after L1 and ground.
3) Just in case, GROUND for this circuit is same as negative (-).
4) Q1/Q2 are oposites, e.i. npn/pnp.
5) Is your 555 perhaps defective? Disconnect R3 from pin 3 and check pin 3 for a pulse.
6) Check your transistors to make sure they are not defective.
Frop Votovoltaic panel
Circuit Model in PSpice
The MPPT circuit model consists of two power conversion stages; the first stage matches the
input of the converter to the maximum power point voltage of the solar module while the second
stage matches the output load voltage. Therefore, two different control references are required to
control the length of the conduction and cut-off times for each stage. As with the solar cell circuit
model, the MPPT circuit is implemented in Pspice. Each stage of the power converter will consist
of (i) an error amplifier to measure the difference between the output voltage and the desired
reference voltage, and (ii) a PWM generator to control the MOSFET switch of the converter.
The error amplifier is an essential part of the feedback loop since it is able to adjust the input
voltage to drive the buck converter to the desired output. The error amplifier measures how close
the output voltage is to the desired voltage. The measurement of error is the difference between
()
the output voltage and the reference voltage,
refoErrAmpVVkV−=. In PSpice, the error amplifier
is modeled with an operational amplifier that generates a voltage equal to the difference between
the output voltage and the reference voltage. The error then drives the PWM circuit. The PSpice
circuit diagram of the error amplifier is shown below
Fig 1: PSpice circuit schematic of error amplifier
A capacitor is added to model the bandwidth limit of the error amplifier. A low pass RC filter
combination is also included to limit the high frequency gain of the amplifier; this is necessary to
prevent wild ringing or oscillations [18]. Finally, a diode is added to clamp the error voltage to an
appropriate range. The logic behind the error amplifier is as follows: (i) when the difference
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between the output voltage and the reference voltage is positive, the duty cycle is increased; (ii)
when the difference is negative, the duty cycle is decrease; while the duty cycle is maintained
when the difference between the output and reference voltage is zero.
A pulse width modulation signal is used to drive the MOSFET, which controls the power flow
from the input to the output of the converter. Two main components are used to model the PWM:
a triangle wave and a comparator. Pspice does not have a triangle wave generator/source, but a
triangle wave can be achieved with a square wave generator with long rise and fall times. The
comparator is achieved by the use of an operational amplifier and the TABLE function in Pspice.
As the output of the error amplifier varies between zero and its maximum value, the PWM output
changes from 0% to 100% duty cycle. The output of the PWM then drives the MOSFET switch.
Since there are two stages in the MPPT design, each stage will require a unique PWM signal. The
PSpice circuit diagram of the PWM is shown in Fig. 2 below
Fig 2: PSpice circuit schematic of PWM
The MPPT control circuit has implemented and evaluated by digital simulation in Pspice. The
output of the error amplifier and the PWM are shown in Fig. 3. The complete schematic of the
MPPT showing both stages of the power conversion is shown in Fig 4. For a convenient collation
of the results, the maximum power point of the solar cell is assumed to be 80% of the open circuit
voltage [19], , in our case ocVV17.280.8V6.21=×. Thus, the solar module is represented with
discrete DC voltage sources ranging from 16V, under unfavorable weather conditions, to 21.6V,
the open circuit voltage.
Fig 3: Control signal from error amplifier voltage and the PWM output
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Fig 4: Schematic of two-stage MPPT in PSpice
REFERENCES
1. Scott, W.G., “Distributed Power Generation: Planning and Evaluation,” Marcel Dekker, 2000.
2. Coutts, T.J., Fitzgerald, M.C., “Thermophotovoltaics,” Scientific American Magazine, pp.90-95, September 1998.
3. Yablonovitch, E., "Photonic Band-gap Structures," Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 10:283, 1993.
4. Luque, A., Marti, A., “Increasing the Efficiency of Ideal Solar Cells by Photon Induced Transitions at Intermediate Levels,” Physical
Review Letters, 78(26): 5014-5017, June 1997.
5. Antunes, F.L.M., Santos, J.L., “Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems,” World Climate & Energy Event, December 2003.
6. Neville, R. C., “Solar Energy Conversion,” Elsevier Science, 1995.
7. Niemann, J., “Understanding Solar Cell Physics,” Sensors, 21(5):57–62, May 2004.
8. Cope, R.C., Podrazhansky, Y., “The Art of Battery Charging,” Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, 14:233-235, January,
1999.
9. Castaner, L., Silvestre, S., “Modeling Photovoltaic Systems,” Wiley, 2002.
10. Costamagna, P., Srinivasan, S., “Quantum Jumps in the PEMFC Science and Technology from the 1960s to the Year 2000,” Journal of
Power Sources, 102:242-252, 2001.
11. IDATECH, “IFCS 1200 Brochure,” www.idatech.com.
12. Barker, P.P., “Ultracapacitors for Use in Power Quality and Distributed Resource Applications,” Power Engineering Society Summer
Meeting, 1:316-320.
13. Enslin, J.H.R., Swiegers, W., “An Integrated Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Panels,” IEEE International Symposium
on Industrial Electronics, 1:40-44, July 1998.
14. Bloos, H., et al., “Photovoltaic Pumping Systems,” EuroSun96, pp.583-589, 1996.
15. Chung, H.S.H., Ho, M.T., Hui, S.Y.R., Tse, K.K., “A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique for PV Panels,” Power
Electronics Specialist Conference, 4:1970-1975, June 2001.
16. Forsyth, A.J., Mollov, S.V., “Modelling and Control of DC-DC Converters,” Power Engineering Journal, 12(5):229-236, October 1998.
17. Walker, G., “Evaluating MPPT Converter Topologies Using a MATLAB PV Model,” Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
21:49-56, 2001.
41
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18. Arabi, K., Kaminska, B., “Testing Analog and Mixed-Signal Integrated Circuits Using Oscillation-Test Method,” IEEE Trans.
Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 16(7):745-753, July 1997.
19. Alonso C., et al., “MPPT of Photovoltaic Systems Using Extremum-Seeking Control,” 42(1):249-258, January 2006.
20. Baliga, B.J., “Power Semiconductor Device Figure of Merit for High-Frequency Applications,” IEEE Electron Device Letters,
10(10):455-457, October 1989.
21. Erickson, R.W., Maksimovic, D., “Fundamentals of Power Electronics,” Springer, 2001.
22. Barrass, P., Cade, M., “PWM Rectifier Using Indirect Voltage Sensing,” IEE Proceedings on Electric Power Applications, 146(5):539544, September 1999.
23. Chimento, G., et al., “Effects of Irradiance and Other Factors on PV Temperature Coefficients,” IEEE Record of Photovoltaic Specialists
Conference, 1:608-613, October 1991.
24. Ernest van Dyk, E., Meyer, E.L., “The Effect of Reduced Shunt Resistance and Shading on Photovoltaic Module Performance,” IEEE
Record of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp.1331-1334, January 2005.
25. Parretta, A., Sarno, A., Vicari, L.R.M., “Effects of Solar Irradiation Conditions on the Outdoor Performance of Photovoltaic Modules,”
Optics Communication, 153(1):153-156, July 1998.
26. Chung, H.S.H., Ho, M.T., Hui, S.Y.R., Tse, K.K., “A Comparative Study of Maximum-Power-Point Trackers for Photovoltaic Panels
Using Switching-Frequency Modulation Scheme,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, 51(2):410-418, April 2004.
27. Chihchiang, H., Chihming, S., “Study of Maximum Power Tracking Techniques and Control of DC/DC Converters for Photovoltaic
Power System,” IEEE Record of Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp.86-93, 1998.
28. Abdul-Latif, M., Sayuti, S.H., Wanik, M.Z., Yusof, Y., “Modeling and Simulation of Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic
System,” Proceedings on Power and Energy Conference, pp.88-936, November 2004.
29. Chihchiang H., Chihming S., Jongrong L., “Implementation of a DSP-Controlled Photovoltaic System with Peak Power Tracking,” IEEE
Trans. Industrial Electronics, 45(1):99-107, February 1998.
30. Liu, X., Lopes, L.A.C., “An Improved Perturbation and Observation Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for PV Arrays,” Power
Electronics Specialists Conference, 3:2005-2010, June 2004.
31. Fernia, N., Petrone, G., Spagnuolo, G., Vitelli, M., “Optimizing Duty-Cycle Perturbation of P&O MPPT Technique,” Power Electronics
Specialists Conference, 3:1939-1944, June 2004.
32. Premrudeepreechacharn, S., Patanapirom, N., “Solar-Array Modelling and Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Neural Networks,”
IEEE Bologna Power Technology Conference, Italy, June 2003.
33. Hassoun, M.H., “Fundamentals of Artificial Neural Networks,” Proceedings of the IEEE, 84(6):906, June 1996.
34. Senjyu, T., Veerachary, M., Uezato, K., “Feedforward Maximum Power Point Tracking of PV Systems Using Fuzzy Controller,” IEEE
Trans. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 38(3):969-981, July 2002.
35. Piche, S.W., “Steepest Descent Algorithms for Neural Network Controllers and Filters,” IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 5(2):198-212,
March 1994.
Şarj kontrol devresi
Şarj kontrol devresi güneş pilinden aküye ve yüke akan elektriği düzenler. Sisteme bağlanan
güneş panelinden gelen gerilim şarj kontrol devresini besler. Devre girişinde kullanılan
LM7815 regüle entegresi, güneş panelinden gelen voltajın 15 voltun üzerinde olduğu anlarda
gerilimi 15 volt seviyesine düşürerek gerilimi sabit tutmaktır. Devrenin amacı akünün fazla
şarjda kalmasını ve akünün düşük voltajda çalışmasını engellemektir. LM339 gerilim
karşılaştırıcı entegresi akü voltajını ölçerek referans değerden aşağıda ise şarj edilmesini
sağlar . Aynı zamanda yukarı referans değerinden fazla ise akü şarjını keser. Akünün şarj
edilmesini 4069 entegresi sağlar. Bu entegre devrede osilatör olarak kullanılmıştır. Çıkışına
bağlanan 5305 güç transistorleri tampon ve sürücü işini yapar.
Devre aküyü aşırı doldurmadan sürekli tam dolu vaziyette tutar. Yük güç çekmeye başladığı
zaman kontrol devresi şarjın modülden aküye, yüke veya her ikisine birden akışına izin verir.
Devrede kullanılan diyotlar akımın tek yönde akması için kullanılmıştır. Kondansatörler
çalışma esnasında oluşan ripple voltajların devrenin çalışmasını etkilememesi için parazit
silici olarak çalışır. Ledler ile devrenin çalışıp çalışmadığı gözlemlenmiştir.Sigortalar ise
devreyi yüksek akım çekilmesi durumunda bozulmaktan korur. Şarj kontrol devresinin en
önemli kısmı güneş panelinin ürettiği 5-21 V arası gerilimi şarj pompasına 15 V sabit olarak
tutabilmesidir. Burada kullanılan regüle entegresi 1,5 A sürekli akım çekilmesine dayanacak
güçtedir. Güneş panellerinden gelen gerilim şarj kontrol devresinde akü gerilimiyle
karşılaştırılır. Akünün gerilimi güneş panellerinden sağlanan gerilimden düşükse, evirici
devresi beslenirken aynı anda akü de şarj edilir. Eğer akü gerilimi panellerden elde edilen
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Project
Conclus
ions:
Güç Elektroniği / N. Abut
gerilimden düşük değilse LM339 entegresi şarj pompasını kapalı tutar. Panellerden yeterli
gerilim sağlanmadığı takdirde evirici devresi aküden beslenir.
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