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Friend or Foe
Bacteria = Prokaryotes
 Discovered when Robert Hooke and Anton
van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope
 Bacteria are the smallest living organism
 Unicellular and lack nucleus
Classifying Prokaryotes
2 Different Groups:
– Eubacteria
 Great variety
 Live almost anywhere (land, water, & in humans)
 Cell wall contains peptidoglycan (carbohydrate)
– Archaebacteria
 Chemically different because lack peptidoglycan
 DNA more like that of eukaryotes
 Live in harsh environments (no oxygen, very salty, &
high temperatures)
Identifying Prokaryotes
Identified by Shape, Chemicals in Cell
Walls, Way they Move, & Obtaining
 Shapes:
– Bacilli = Rod Shaped
– Cocci = Spherical Shaped
– Spirilla = Spiral & Cork-screw
Obtaining Energy
– Chemoheterotrophs = take in organic molecules
– Photoheterotrophs = photosynthetic (use
sunlight) & need organic molecules for energy
– Chemoautotrophs = make organic molecules
from carbon dioxide
– Photoautotrophs = use light energy and water to
carbon compounds and oxygen (like plants)
Living Conditions
Obligate Aerobes = need oxygen to live
Obligate Anaerobes = needs no oxygen
Falcultative Anaerobes = can live with or
without oxygen
Binary fission = cell grows to double its
size, DNA copied, and then splits
Conjugation = DNA exchanged by bridge
that forms and passes on genes
Endospores = spores formed when in bad
conditions to live. Spores are dormant, then
awaken when good conditions
Bad Bacteria
Pathogens = disease causing (i.e. E. coli )
Good Bacteria
Vaccines = preparation of weak pathogen
 Antibiotics = block the regrowth and
reproduction of pathogens
 Decomposers = help the ecosystem
recycle nutrients
 Human Uses:
– Clean oil spills because some digest petroleum
– Purifying water by removing waste products
– Making vitamins
– Foods & Drinks to help Human Body digestion
Bacteria Shakes!!!!
Probiotic Kefir Milk
L. casei
L. acidophiles
L. plantarum
L. rhamnosus
S. diacetylactis
S. florentinus
B. bacterium longum
Leuconostoc cremoris
B. bacterium breve
Lowfat Milk
Ice Cream
Whey Protein