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PROSTATE CANCER
Carita Bird
NUR 114
Region A Nursing Consortium

Prostate Cancer = a cancer that occurs in a man’s
prostate ( a small, walnut shaped gland) that
produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and
transports the sperm.
One of the most common types of cancer
 Usually slow growing
 May remain confined to the prostate initially
 There is also a very aggressive type
 Earlier the detection the better the outcome

SYMPTOMS
May be none in the early stages
 Trouble urinating
 Decrease force in the stream of urine
 Blood in the urine
 Blood in the semen
 Swelling in the legs
 Discomfort (heaviness) in the pelvic area
 Bone pain

WHEN TO SEE THE DOCTOR
When any of the symptoms appear
 If there is a family history
 At age 50

RISK FACTORS
Older age
 Being African American
 Family history
 Obesity

COMPLICATIONS OF CANCER AND ITS
TREATMENT
Metastasis
 Incontinence
 Erectile dysfunction

HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
Family physician or internist
 Urologist
 Oncologist
 Radiation oncologist
 Clinical Nurse Specialist

PREPARING FOR APPOINTMENTS
Teach patients about pre-appointment
restrictions
 Write down the symptoms experienced including
those that may be unrelated
 Write down key personal information
 Make a list of all medications
 Take a second set of ears
 Write down questions to ask

TESTS AND PROCEDURES
Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)
 Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
 Ultrasound
 Biopsy


Gleason Score
Bone scan
 CT scan
 MRI

STAGING

Stage I

Stage II

Stage III

Stage IV
TREATMENT AND DRUGS
Wait and watch
 Radiation Therapy
 Hormone therapy
 Surgery
 Freezing prostate tissue
 Heating prostate tissue
 Chemotherapy

RADITION THERAPY
External beam radiation
 Brachytherapy

HORMONE THERAPY

Leuteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist
(LH-RH)






leuprolide
goserelin
triptorelin
histrelin
degarelix
Anti-androgen
bicalutamide
 flutamide
 nilutamide

SURGERY
Orchiectomy
 Radical Prostatectomy
 Cryosurgery


High-Intensity focused ultrasound (being
researched)
CHEMOTHERAPY

Not used as commonly as radiation in the
treatment of prostate cancer
ALTERNATE THERAPY
Not known for cure
 Acupuncture
 Herbal therapy
 Very useful in coping with side effect of
treatment







Art therapy
Movement therapy
Meditation
Music therapy
Relaxation techniques
Spirituality
COPING AND SUPPORT
Learn about the cancer and treatment options
 Keep your friends and family close
 Support groups
 Take care of yourself
 Continue sexual expression

PREVENTION
Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables
 Choose healthy foods over supplements
 Exercise most days of the week
 Maintain a healthy weight
 Talk to a physician if there are concerns
