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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY
Chapter 3
The Nature and Nurture
Of Behavior
AP Psychology- Coach Sprenkle
Genes: Our Biological
Blueprint
Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA that
contain the genes
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
complex molecule containing the genetic
information that makes up the chromosomes
has two strands-forming a “double helix”held together by bonds between pairs of
nucleotides
Genes: Our Biological
Blueprint
Genes
biochemical units of heredity that make up the
chromosomes
a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a
protein
Genome
the complete instructions for making an
organism
consisting of all the genetic material in its
chromosomes
Genetics and
Behavior
Nucleus
Cell
Chromosome
Gene
DNA
Behavior Genetics
Behavior Genetics
study of the power and limits of genetic
and environmental influences on
behavior
Environment
every nongenetic influence, from
prenatal nutrition to the people and
things around us
Behavior Genetics
Identical
twins
Fraternal
twins
Identical Twins
develop from a single
zygote (fertilized egg) that
splits in two, creating two
genetic replicas
Fraternal Twins
Same
sex only
Same or
opposite sex
develop from separate
zygotes
genetically no closer than
brothers and sisters, but
they share the fetal
environment
Behavior Genetics
Temperament
a person’s characteristic emotional
reactivity and intensity
Heritability
the proportion of variation among
individuals that we can attribute to
genes
may vary, depending on the range of
populations and environments studied
Behavior Genetics
Interaction
the effect of one factor (such as
environment) depends on another factor
(such as heredity)
Molecular Genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the
molecular structure and function of
genes
Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection
the principle that, among the range of
inherited trait variations, those contributing to
survival will most likely be passed on to
succeeding generations
Mutations
random errors in gene replication that lead to
a change in the sequence of nucleotides
the source of all genetic diversity
Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior
using the principles of natural selection
Gender
in psychology, the characteristics,
where biologically or socially influenced,
by which people define male and female
Evolutionary Psychology
Men everywhere preferred attractive physical
features suggesting youth and health
Environmental
Influence
Two placental arrangements in identical
twins
Environmental
Influence
Experience affects brain development
Impoverished
environment
Rat brain
cell
Enriched
environment
Rat brain
cell
Environmental
Influence
A trained brain
Environmental
Influence
Culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas,
attitudes, and traditions shared by a
large group of people and transmitted
from one generation to the next
Norm
an understood rule for accepted and
expected behavior
Environmental
Influence
Personal Space
the buffer zone we like to maintain
around our bodies
Memes
self-replicating ideas, fashions, and
innovation passed from person to
person
The Nature and
Nurture of Gender
X Chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and
women
females have two; males have one
an X chromosome from each parent produces
a female
Y Chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in men
when paired with an X chromosome from the
mother, it produces a male child
The Nature and
Nurture of Gender
Testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones
both males and females have it
additional testosterone in males stimulates
growth of male sex organs in the fetus
development of male sex characteristics during
puberty
Role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position
defining how those in the position ought to behave
The Nature and
Nurture of Gender
Gender Role
a set of expected behaviors for males and
females
Gender Identity
one’s sense of being male or female
Gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or
feminine role
The Nature and
Nurture of Gender
Social Learning Theory
theory that we learn social behavior by
observing and imitating and by being
rewarded or punished
Gender Schema Theory
theory that children learn from their cultures
a concept of what it means to be male and
female and that they adjust their behavior
accordingly
The Nature and
Nurture of Gender
Percentage agreeing “The activities of married
women are best confined to home and family”
70
Percentage
60
Men
50
40
30
20
10
Women
0
1967 ‘71 ‘75 ‘79 ‘83 ‘87 ‘91 ‘95
Year