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BLOOD . Blood- A mixture of cells, enzymes, proteins, and inorganic substances. Plasma- The fluid part of blood Formed Elements- The cells Platelets- Aid in clotting process At a crime scene, ask three basic “blood” questions: Is this blood? How to tell: Chemical analysis with KM reagent or Luminal From what species did the blood originate? How to tell: DNA and/or protein analysis If the blood is human, whose is it? How to tell: DNA and/or protein analysis Blood Typing (Serology) Blood Typing (Serology) The three alleles for blood are: A, B and O These alleles can combine either… a.) homozygous- two of the same genes b.) heterozygous- two different genes The basic blood types(phenotypes) and their gene combinations(genotype) A-type= IAIA (homo.) or IA i (hetero.) 42% B-type= IBIB(homo.) or IBi (hetero.) 12%c. O-type= ii(homo.) 43% AB-type= IAIB(hetero.) 3% Blood Tests Agglutination: clumping, used to detect blood type Immunological assay: Detect drugs by using serum reaction to a drug protein complex Kastle –Meyer: Detects blood by examining the peroxidase-like activity of hemoglobin in blood to catalyze the oxidation of phenolphthalein (a pH test) Blood Tests cont.. Precipitation test- To detect human or animal blood. Animals are injected with human blood (usually rabbits), antibodies are formed that react with the invading human blood to neutralize its presence. The serum will contain human antiserum. Then gel diffusion is used to detect the species of blood. Blood Type is Hereditary Everyone receives their genes in pairs. So, one blood type gene/letter comes from each parent Antibodies Antibodies can be used to determine blood typing. Anti-bodies are an organism’s self-defense mechanism and react to specific antigens. There are a 15 common blood antigens which can be tested. RH Factor is often association with blood typing and is referred to as positive(+) or negative (-) antigen test.