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The Colonies Become
New Nations
Ch 34
• Countries
• Countries w/ colonies start to
turn against colonialism b/c:
• Expensive
• Big commitment
• Morally wrong (WWII had
been a struggle against
oppressive dictators)
• Colonies begin pushing harder
for indep.
• India as a
• Controlled by British for almost
200 yrs
• One of the largest + most
populous colonies in the world
• Divided by 2 main religious
• Hindus (350 mil)
• Muslims (100 mil)
• The Congress Party (or Indian
National Congress) was India’s
national political party – most
members were Hindu
• The Muslim League looked out
for the interests of India’s
Muslims. The League stated that
it would never accept Indian
indep. if it meant the rule of the
Congress Party
• Indian Indep.
• After WWII, Britain had a massive
war debt. Due to the cost of
maintaining a colony + the Indians’
push for indep., Britain decided to
give India its freedom
• Fighting broke out between the
Muslims + Hindus for control
• British decide to partition (to divide
into parts) India into Hindu + Muslim
nations in 1947.
• Modern India was the Hindu
• East + West Pakistan were the
Muslim part
• Britain announced that India would gain
its indep. in only 1 month.
• Millions of Indians moved so that they
would be in the borders of the country
of their religion.
• Violence ensued
• Gandhi pleaded for fair treatment
of Muslim refugees + was
assassinated by a Hindu extremist
in 1948.
• Modern
• India became the world’s largest democracy +
India Takes Jawaharlal Nehru became its 1st prime minister
• Educated in Britain
• Popular among all groups
• As Prime Minister he:
1. Emphasized democracy, unity, +
economic indep.
2. Kept India neutral during the Cold War
3. Reorganized states based on language
4. Pushed for industrialization + social reform
5. Tried to elevate the lower social castes
(classes in the Hindu faith)
6. Expanded rights of women
• Died in 1964, many political parties form
• Violence occurs due to differences b/w the
various religious groups (Hindu, Muslim, + Sikh –
who want their own independent state)
• India
• Has a population of over 1 bil
• Is expected to become the highest
populated country in 2035
• Problems with social inequality, due in
part to Hindu beliefs
• Violence breaks out periodically due to
religious differences + border disputes
• Pakistan + • Once Pakistan split from India in 1947, there was
Bangladesh immediately fighting b/w East + West Pakistan
• E. + W. Pakistan were separated by over
1,000 miles of Indian territory + were
completely different culture + history - only
commonality was that they were
predominantly Muslim
• E. Pakistan had a larger population, but W.
Pakistan was where gov.’t was located
• E. Pakistan declare its indep. in 1971 +
called itself Bangladesh
• War immediately broke out + India
sided w/ Bangladesh
- Bangladesh won + is now one
of the world’s poorest countries
- Prone to natural
disasters w/ a rapidly
• Strife B/w
India +
• Both India + Pakistan have been fighting
over the region of Kashmir in Northern
India + Northern Pakistan for decades
• 2/3 of Kashmir is in India + 1/3 in
• Major source of water for both
• Both sides now have nuclear
weapons which is a cause of
international concern
• Sri Lanka
• Small island off of southern India
• Gained indep. in 1948
• ¾ population are Buddhists + ¼ are
• Hindus on Sri Lanka desire a
separate independent nation on
the island
• Violence b/w the 2 groups
is ongoing
End Section 1
SE Asian Countries Gain Indep.
• As Colonies
• Before WWII the US, Britain,
France + the Netherlands had
colonies in SE Asia
• During WWII, Japan seized
many of those colonies +
controlled them for years
• When WWII ended, SE
Asians refused to live under
European rule again
• The Philippines • Granted indep. from the US on
July 4, 1946
• Suffered for decades under
dictator Ferdinand Marcos who
stole hundreds of millions of
dollars from his country before
being forced into exile
• Strides have been made towards
democracy recently
• Currently has problems w/ a
militant Muslim group known as
the Moros who desire indep.
• Former British
• Burma/Myanmar gained indep. in 1948
• Suffered many political upheavals
• Currently ruled by an oppressive
military gov.’t
• Malaysia gained indep. in 1957
• Singapore split from Malaysia in
1965 + became an indep. city-state
• Important banking + trade
• Has one of the world’s
strongest economies
• Indonesia • Gained indep. from the Netherlands in 1947
– World’s 4th most populated country
– More than 13,600 islands
– 300 ethnic groups + 250 languages
– Most of the world’s major religions – but has
the world’s largest Muslim population
– Suffered for years under a general turned
president until a democratic gov.’t took over
– Still faces problems w/ fragile economy,
ethnic strife, etc…
• East Timor (predominantly Christian population)
split from Indonesia + became independent
End Section 2
• African Indep. + the
Problems that Arose
• Africans began expressing
their desire for indep. before
WWII w/ the Negritude
movement which celebrated
African culture
• Like other colonies they were
unwilling to remain colonies
after WWII
• Colonies which had been
under indirect rule (system in
which local officials in
colonies handled much of the
governing) adapted to indep.
much easier than those
colonies that had been under
direct rule (gov.’t led by
foreign power – locals not
trained to run gov.’t)
• Problems of ethnic strife - European
boundaries broke up kinship groups +
often combined rival ethnic groups
• Pan-Africanism starts to spread (A
movement promoting values that are
the product of the African civilization
+ struggles against slavery, racism,
colonialism, + neo-colonialism)
• Many countries suffered from
poverty, outbreaks of war, + corrupt
• Genocides (the deliberate +
systematic destruction, in whole or in
part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or
national group) have been ongoing
Stages of Genocide (Do NOT Copy)
Preventive Measures
1. Classification
People are divided into "us + them"
The main preventive measure is to develop
universalistic institutions that transcend divisions
2. Symbolization
Symbols may be forced upon
unwilling members of pariah groups
To combat symbolization, hate symbols can be
legally forbidden as hate speech
3. Dehumanization
One group denies the humanity of
another group. Members are equated
w/ animals, vermin, insects or
Local + international leaders should condemn the
use of hate speech + make it culturally
unacceptable. Leaders who incite genocide
should be banned from international travel + have
their foreign finances frozen
4. Organization
Genocide is always organized...
Special army units or militias are
often trained + armed
The U.N. should impose arms embargoes on
governments + citizens of countries involved in
genocidal massacres, + create commissions to
investigate violations
5. Polarization
Hate groups broadcast polarizing
Prevention may mean security protection for
moderate leaders or assistance to human rights
groups...Coups d’état by extremists should be
opposed by international sanctions
6. Preparation
Victims are identified + separated out
b/c of their ethnic or religious identity
A Genocide Emergency must be declared.
7. Extermination
It is "extermination" to the killers
because they do not believe their
victims to be fully human
At this stage, only rapid + overwhelming armed
intervention can stop genocide. Safe areas or
refugee escape corridors should be established w/
heavily armed international protection
8. Denial
The perpetrators deny that they
committed any crimes
The response to denial is punishment by an
international tribunal or international courts
• Genocide • The 2 main ethnic groups in Rwanda are the Tutsi +
in Rwanda
the Hutu. Unknown whether or not they were once
1 ethnic group that was split by the Belgium
colonists or 2 ethnic groups further divided by the
• Belgium backed a gov.’t led by the Tutsis +
the Tutsis became disproportionately wealthy
• Violence periodically broke out b/w the 2 groups
• For several years in the early 1990s, Hutu radio
stations repeatedly called for the death of the
“cockroaches” (Tutsis)
• (1994) A plane carrying the Hutu president of
Rwanda was shot down
• Hutu extremists immediately began rounding
up + murdering Tutsis over a period of 100
days killing approximately ½ -1 mil, many
were killed by machetes
• Tutsi rebels finally overthrew the Hutu
• Genocide in
Darfur (Sudan)
• Began w/ drought, desertification, +
• Feelings of neglect, combined w/
allegations that the gov.’t was arming Arab
tribesmen to raid non-Arab villages, led to
a 2003 rebel attack on a Sudanese Air
Force Base in N. Darfur
• In response, the gov.’t began training +
arming of Arab militias, historic rivals of the
rebellious groups. These militias came to
be known as the Janjaweed - “devil on
horseback.” Janjaweed raiders engage in
mass terror of non-Arab villages, murdering
+ displacing civilians, looting + burning
food stocks, and enslaving + raping women
+ children.
• The opposing rebels have also committed
• Millions have become refugees
• Largest ongoing genocide today
End Section 3
• The
• Reasons for current situation in the
Middle East:
1. Decolonization
2. Creation of Israel
3. Oil
4. Cold War – USSR helped Arabs
5. Rise of Islamic factions in gov.’t
6. Terrorism
• The Middle
East is the
Birthplace of 3
major religions:
1. Judaism: God promised the land to Abraham
for his people
2. Christianity: Jesus of Nazareth born 4-7 A.D.
preached + lived till 30-33
- Christianity established as a
separate religion after His
3. Islam: Muhammad born in Mecca 570 A.D.
Around 40 yrs old believed he had an
encounter with angel Gabriel. Died in 632
• City of Jerusalem:
• Jews - most holy city
• Christians – Jesus lived, preached,
+ died there
• Muslims – Muhammad transported
from Mecca to Jerusalem
+ ascended to Heaven
Blue =
Yellow =
Green =
• Blame the
• During WWI the British gov.’t made
conflicting promises:
- told Arabs they would get indep. to
get them to fight
- Balfour Declaration (intended to get
USA into WWI) supported creation of
an Israeli homeland in the region
• Once they
realized their
• Countries in the region gain indep. after
WWII EXCEPT for Palestine
• Jews migrate there after Holocaust
• Fighting ensues
• Britain gives the problem to the UN
» This is what they come up with…
• Red = Palestine
• Blue = Israel
• Jerusalem =
International city
• Palestine would be
partitioned into 2
indep. nations –
Israel + Palestine
• Zionists were
mostly agreeable,
but Arabs were
• Israel’s Indep.
• May 1948 as soon as the British
leave the country
• Arabs start fighting
• Although USA recognized the state
of Israel immediately, it did not
supply arms to Israel (or to other
countries in the region)
• Jews still win indep.
• Palestinian Refugees
• Left due to anticipation of war
(encouraged by Arab leaders) + in a
few cases expelled by Israeli
leaders due to military needs
• Approx. ½ mil b/w 1947-49
• Affects surrounding countries,
especially Jordan
• Zionist + Palestinian
landownership in
percentages by
sub-district, 1945
Red = Palestinian
Blue = Zionist
White = Public + Other
• Boundaries after
the war
• The Suez Crisis • 1956- The Suez Canal is a valuable trade
• Egypt’s president nationalizes it +
plans to forbid Israelis from using it.
• British, French, + Israelis instigate a
• Israel gains territory
• President Eisenhower royally ticked,
threatens Israel, + they withdrawal
• The PLO
Palestine Liberation Organization
Created in 1963 by Arab nations
INTENDED to be a terrorist organization
Led for many years by Yasser Arafat
1974, Arab nations claim it to be the
legitimate authority of the Palestinians
• Israeli settlements
in occupied
• The 6 Day War
• 1967, Israel’s neighbors blockade the Gulf
of Aqaba
• Israel humiliates them in 6 days,
gains territories of Suez Canal,
West Bank, East Jerusalem, +
Golan Heights
• UN acknowledged Israel’s right to
exist, but said they were to return
the territories which they didn’t do
• Yom Kippur War
• 1973-74 – Egypt + Syria attack on the
most holy Jewish holiday
• UN intervenes
• Suez Canal returned to Egypt
• Camp David
• 1979, The President of Egypt,
the Prime Minister of Israel, +
President Jimmy Carter meet
• Israel returns Sinai peninsula
• Egypt grants Israel access to the
Suez Canal
• Agree to send ambassadors
• Egypt formally recognizes
Israel as an indep. nation –
it is the 1st Arab country to
do so
• Egypt expelled from Arab
• Oslo Peace
• 1st direct, face-to-face agreement
b/w Israel + political representatives
of Palestinians.
• The PLO would be officially
recognized by Israel as the
governing body of the Palestinian
people + be afforded self-gov.’t in
parts of the West Bank + Gaza Strip.
• The PLO in turn recognized Israel's
right to exist + renounced its intent to
attack + destroy that state.
• “Permanent issues" such as border
security + Israeli settlements were
left out of the accords purposely, to
be resolved in other talks.
End Section 4
• Challenges Facing
Central Asia
• Made up of Armenia, Azerbaijan,
Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan,
Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan,
Afghanistan, + Tajikistan (“stan”
means land)
• Some of the poorest countries in
the world
• All were once part of the USSR,
except for Afghanistan
• After the collapse of the USSR in
1991 (more on that in Ch 35),
these countries have struggled
economically, due partly to their
dependence on the USSR + to
their dependence on a single crop
– cotton, but some of the
countries have oil reserves +
could improve their economies
• Also have trouble with ethnic strife
• Afghanistan
• People are predominately Muslim
• One of the least-developed countries
in the world
• Mountainous + desert terrain
• Throughout the 1800s until 1919 it
has been fought over by Russia +
• 1978, a group w/ ties to the USSR
overthrows the gov.’t
• Most Afghans were unhappy b/c they
believed communism went against
many Islamic beliefs. They formed a
group known as the mujahideen
(Muslim holy warriors). They fought
w/ the USSR for 10 yrs (backed by
the US + other countries) + won
• Rise of the
• After defeating the Soviets, Afghanistan
was ruled by warlords. A conservative
Islamic group would take power known
as the Taliban. It would eventually
control 90% of the country. The rest
was controlled by a group known as the
Northern Alliance.
• Initially, the Taliban was viewed
positively b/c it brought law + order,
fought corruption, + encouraged
business growth.
• Fall of the • Eventually looked down on b/c it followed an
extreme interpretation of Islam – women were
forbidden from going to school or holding jobs +
had to be completely covered when out in public,
tv + movies were banned, etc… Breaking laws
resulted in severe punishments (beatings,
amputations, execution). Especially troubling
was their support of terrorism.
• They would eventually be driven from power by
the US after refusing to turn over Osama bin
Laden after Sept. 11th attacks.
• New gov.’t faces many challenges in rebuilding
the country.
End Section 5