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Mesopotamia The Worlds First Civilization What is a civilization? Civilizations - are ________________ societies. They have cities, organized __________________, art, __________________, class divisions, and a writing system. Why were river valleys important? ________________ - large amounts of people could be fed ________________- goods and ideas to move from place to place. ________________- grow up in these valleys and became the centers of civilizations. Mesopotamia The land between two rivers. Mesopotamia Mesopotamia was the worlds first civilization. The _______ _________that allowed Mesopotamia to succeed were the ______________ and ____________. The fertile crescent In the spring, the __________ often _____________, leaving behind rich _________ for __________. The problem was that the _________________ was very _______________. It might flood one year, but not the next. Every year, farmers worried about their crops. Irrigation Over time, the farmers learned to build ________ and _____________to ___________the seasonal ___________. They also built walls, waterways, and __________to bring water to their fields. This way of ________________crops is called ____________Irrigation allowed the farmers to grow plenty of food and support a large population. Sumer The first major ______________in Mesopotamia was in a region called ______________. Food in Sumer The ___________ grew several kinds of crops. The most valuable one was __________, which was used to make flour and bread. ___________were also very valuable to the Sumerians. They were eaten once ripe or else they were dried for future consumption. Dates also made an excellent wine. Barley and dates City-states Each Sumerian city and the land around it became a separate _____-________. Each city-state had its own _______________and was not part of any ________________unit. Social Classes in Sumer ____________class - kings, priests, warriors, and government officials. _____________class - artisans, merchants, farmers, and fishers. These people made up the largest group. _____________class - enslaved people who worked on farms or in the temples. Writing The most important ____________of the Sumerians was __________. The writing of the Sumerians was called ___________. Cuneiform alphabet TheEpic of Gilgamesh The most famous piece of ___________from Sumer is the _________of Gilgamesh. An epic is a long poem that tells the story of a hero. The hero Gilgamesh is a king who travels around the world with a friend and performs great deeds. When his friend dies, Gilgamesh searches for a way to live forever. Sumerian Inventions _____________________ ______________ _______________ __________________________ ________________________ __________________________ wagon wheel plow sailboat Sargon In about 2340 B.C., ___________conquered all of Mesopotamia creating the world’s first ____________. An empire is a _________of many different lands under one _________. Sargon’s ___________lasted for more than _______years before falling to invaders. Hammurabi _______________is best known for his law __________, or collection of laws. Law _____: If a judge makes an error through his own fault when trying a case, he must pay a fine, be removed from the judge’s bench, and never judge another case. Law_________: If a son strikes his father, the son’s hands shall be cut off.