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Any substance (or food) that is believed to enhance one’s performance above normal standards. The use of these substances and practices is controversial. Drug testing has been instituted in many sporting programs. Because of ethical violations associated with the inequities that result in competition and health problems that can result, use of these substances cannot be condoned! A stimulant that opens airway passages, and increases alertness. Found in medications used to treat Asthma Nasal congestion Weightloss Most widely consumed, self-administered psychotropic drug in the world • • • • Energy-enhancing effect Stimulant for brain Reduces fatigue Diuretic Morphine & Codeine Pain management Side Effects Dizziness Drowsiness Nausea Loss of appetite Hallucinations Highly addictive Relaxation of blood vessels which slows the heart rate (HR) Used in sports were physical activity is of little importance Increase kidney excretion and urine output. Used to reduce body weight quickly or to decrease a drugs’ concentration in the urine Wrestlers, gymnasts, dancers, jockeys Most commonly abused Used to increase muscle size & strength associated with weight lifting Commons sports Power lifters Throwing events Football Baseball Produced by pituitary Increases Muscle growth Bone & connective tissue Weight Decrease body fat Side effects Closure of growth plates Heart defects Kidney & liver disease Produced in kidneys Increase RBC d/t low oxygen levels Increases body’s ability to transport oxygen to working muscles Used by endurance athletes/sports Blood is removed and stored, then reinfused after at least 6 weeks Increases the body’s ability to transport oxygen to working muscles Used by endurance athletes/sports Banned by most sports Side Effects include - allergic reactions, clotting issues, kidney damage, fever, jaundice, infectious disease, shock, heart failure Corticosteroids Injected into site to locally inhibit pain Used by ALL sports Side Effects Increased injury Weakness and degeneration of tendons and ligaments Replenishes ATP very rapidly Allows athlete to train harder Side Effects Dehydration Muscle cramping Kidney damage Liver damage Hormone irregularities Increased lipid levels Health of athletes and to help ensure that competition is fair and equitable. Sports programs should have full-service programs that provide substance abuse education, counseling, and drug-detection. Drug testing should be performed periodically in a random manner. A sports program must adopt the philosophy that “winning at all costs” is wrong. It is essential for athletes to believe that if they do their very best and adhere to the rules of the sport, they will be doing exactly what is expected of them.