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Transcript
Precision Sub-Fractional Motor Technologies:
How to Match the Best Technology for Your
Application
Day 1: Brushless PM Motors, Advantages/Disadvantages,
Examining Selected Precision Application Examples for SubFractional Motors
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Motor Technology in Precision Applications
Using Small Motors
Day 1- Brushless DC PM
You are here
Day 2- Brush DC PM
Day 3- Stepper (focus on PM)
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Brushless DC PM Technology Review Outline
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Introduction
History: Concept to Commercialization
Motor Technology Advantages
Motor Technology Disadvantages
Expected Enhancements, Changes, etc.
Suppliers of Note
Application List and/or Examples
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Introduction
 Focus on precision motion using smaller motors,
generally 200 watts and smaller.
 Over the next 3 days we will discuss technology
attributes-advantages-disadvantages-applications for
three motor technologies:
 Brushless PM
 Brush DC pm
 Stepper
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History: Concept to Commercialization of Brushless PM Motors
 Most new technologies need a champion — an
individual or company willing to risk time and
capital to introduce them to their customers and
the world. IBM was such a company.
 Millions of IBM disk drives substituted brushless
motor technology in place of brush DC motors
for spindle drives in the 1970s.
 Beyond IBM, GE was an early adopter of the
technology, producing an integrated brushless
motor and drive for appliance applications in the
mid-1970s.
 What brought brushless PM motor technology
to commercial viability at this time?
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History: Concept to Commercialization of Brushless PM Motors
 Higher strength rare earth magnets
and
 Lower cost, higher power semiconductor
transistors
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History: Concept to Commercialization of Brushless PM Motors
 After brushless motor commercial
introduction, it took 20 years before our
clients changed their primary question
from
“Is it real?”
to
“How far and how fast?”
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Brushless DC PM Basics:
Advantages and Disadvantages
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Brushless DC PM Advantages
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Brushless DC PM Advantages
 Greater torque per volume or power per volume
than other popular motor technologies.
 Wide performance range (speed, torque, power)
than competing technologies.
 Higher efficiency than other technologies, capable of
90+%.
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Brushless Motor Cross Section
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Cutaway, Exploded Views of Different
Brushless Motor Configurations
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Brushless DC PM Motor Cutaway
Commutation
Board
Magnets
Bearings
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Brushless DC PM Motor Cutaway View
Electronic
Commutation
Board
Bearings
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Brushless DC PM Advantages
 Synchronous operation: no slip (compared to
AC induction) or missed steps (compared to
steppers), with speed varying directly with
applied voltage.
 No particle contamination compared with
brush DC motors.
 No sparking or electromagnetic contamination
generated from metal-on-metal friction
(brushes traveling on metal commutator).
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Linear Device: Easier to Control, More Predictable
Speed
Increases
Linearly
with
Voltage
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Linear Device: Easier to Control, More Predictable
Stall
Current
Torque
Increases
Linearly with
Current
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Trade-offs Are Inevitable
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Brushless PM Motor Torque/Speed Curve
No Load
Speed
CONTINUOUS
TORQUE ZONE
Peak
Torque
Intermittent
Torque Zone
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Brushless DC PM Disadvantages
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Brushless DC PM Disadvantages
 Requires electronic control to operate
compared with AC induction and brush DC PM
technology, thus is more costly, with all other
things being equal.
 Requires permanent magnets that often are
the “weak” link in the motor, where they can
be either temperature limited,
environmentally limited, or expensive
(especially as the power requirements increase
over 20kW).
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Next two slides show relative
complexity of Brushless control
compared to Brush DC
motor control
<Toggle back and forth to Illustrate>
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Brushless DC PM Motor, Drive, Feedback Connections
Drive, Control
Circuitry
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Rotating
Magnets
23
Brush DC PM Motor, Drive, Feedback Connections
Rotating
Windings
Brush
Drive, Control
Circuitry
Stationary
Magnets
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Enhancements, Improvements, etc.,
to Brushless DC PM Technology
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Brushless DC PM
 The major improvements to all electric motor
performance, over the last 10 years and going
forward, has been and will be the application
of sophisticated electronic controls and
software.
 Brushless technology has led the way because
it has required, from its inception, electronic
control to operate.
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Brushless DC PM
 Material improvements in magnets (stronger,
more rugged), iron (better steels), and
insulation (magnet wire, potting, slot liners,
separators) will continue to evolve, raising
motor performance characteristics.
 Application of new, higher performing plastics
and other materials to replace aluminum and
metal parts will help lower manufacturing
costs.
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Brushless DC PM Suppliers of Note
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Major Suppliers of BLDC PM Motors
BLDC PM Motor Supplier
Mabuchi (J)
Affiliate Company or HQ Country
Aeroflex Motion Control
Cobham
AMC
AMP
AO Smith
API-Gettys
API-Harowe
Applimotion
Astromec
Baldor
Baumueller
Bayside MFM
Beckoff Automation
BEI Kimco
Bison Gear
Bodine Electric
Bosch
Canon
C. I. Kasei
Custom Motors
USA
Tamagawa Seiki
Regal-Beloit
Danaher
Danaher
USA
USA
ABB
Germany
Parker
Germany
Schneider Electric
USA
USA
Germany
Japan
Japan
Parker Electromechanical
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Major Suppliers of BLDC PM Motors
BLDC PM Motor Supplier
Dynetic Systems
Electrocraft
ElectroMech
Emerson-Hurst
Emotec
Engel
ETEL (Heidenhain)
ETM (wka Motor Excellence)
Fanuc
Fastech
Golden Motor
Groschopp
Hans Motors
Hitachi
Indramat (Bosch)
Infranor
Affiliate Company or HQ Country
USA
EAD
TransDigm Group
Nidec
Allied Motion
Germany
Switzerland (Germany)
USA
Japan
Korea
China
Germany
China
Japan
Germany
Switzerland
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Mabuchi (J)
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Major Suppliers of BLDC PM Motors
BLDC PM Motor Supplier
Japan Servo (Nidec)
Just Motion Control
Kollmorgen
Loher
LS Mecapion
Magmotor
Maxon Motors
MICROMO (FAULHABER Group)
Mitsubishi
Moog Motion Component Group
MTI
Namiki Precision
NMB
Northern Magnetics
Oriental Motor
Pac-Sci
Panasonic
Papst EBM
Parker Electro-Mechanical
(Compumotor)
Pittman Motors
PMI (Kollmorgen)
Mabuchi (J)
Affiliate Company or HQ Country
Japan
China
Danaher
Germany
China
USA
Switzerland
USA, Germany
Japan
USA
Parker Electromechanical
Japan
Japan
Baldor
Japan
Danaher
Japan
Germany
USA
Ametek
Danaher
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Major Suppliers of BLDC PM Motors
Affiliate Company or HQ
Country
Portescap (Danaher)
Switzerland
Rockwell-Anorad
USA
Sankyo Seiki (Nidec)
Japan
Sanyo Denki
Japan
Sanyo Denki
Japan
SEM (Heidenhain)
UK (Germany)
Shinano Kenshi
Japan
Siemens Energy & Automation Germany
Sinano Electric
Japan
Moog Motion Component
Skurka Motors
Group
Specialty Motors
USA
Teerth
India
Toshiba
Japan
Trilogy Linear Motors
Parker Electromechanical
Unique Mobility
USA
Vernitron Axys Technology
USA
Yaskawa Electric
Japan
Yoko Automation
China
BLDC PM Motor Supplier
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Applications for Brushless DC PM
Motors
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Application Characteristics Favorable to Brushless DC Motors
 BLDC motors are most often employed when the
performance of the application cannot be met by
competing, less expensive technologies, such as brush
DC, AC induction, or stepper.
 Applications requiring higher acceleration and
deceleration are areas where brushless DC PM motors
excel.
 Higher speed applications often use slotless brushless
DC PM motors where speeds of 50,000 rpm and higher
are required.
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Application Characteristics Favorable to Brushless DC Motors
 Applications that benefit from motors with high torque
or power per volume or weight will seriously consider
brushless DC PM technology.
 Applications where weight is at a premium, such as
aerospace, benefit from brushless DC PM technology.
 Where batteries are the power source, higher
efficiency brushless DC PM motors often make sense.
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The Universe of Application Segments
 Brushless DC PM technology is now broadly
used in many major application segments:
 Computers and Business Equipment
 Disk Drive and Other Rotating Memory Equipment
 Copiers, Printers
 Cooling Devices
 Factory Automation
 Machine Tools
 Semiconductor Processing Equipment
 Web processing (continuous movement of material)
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The Universe of Application Segments
 Brushless DC PM technology…more application
segments with broad penetration:
 Factory Automation (cont.)
 Packaging
 General Industrial Equipment
 Special Industrial Equipment
 Medical Equipment
 Air-moving (sleep apnea, ventilators, respirators, etc.)
 Diagnostic Equipment (centrifuges, scanning machines,
etc.)
 Tools, Handhelds, Surgery, and Dental
 Mobility Equipment
 Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
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The Universe of Application Segments
 Brushless DM PM technology application
segments with moderate penetration:
 Aerospace
 Commercial Aviation
 Military Aviation
 Missiles/Drones/UAVs
 Military/Defense
 Vehicles
 UAVs and UGVs
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The Universe of Application Segments
 Brushless DC PM technology application segments
newly adapting:
 Transportation
 Personal Vehicles
 Commercial Vehicles
 Off-Road Vehicles
 Home Appliances
 Hand Tools
 Alternative Energy
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Precision Applications Using Small
Motors
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Commercial Aircraft Applications:
Aircraft Seat Adjustment
Challenge?
Increase comfort and
convenience for high-end
travelers by automating
seat adjustment, seat access
window shades, tray tables,
and electronic
equipment storage.
Motor Need?
Highly reliable, lighter
weight, small, higher
torque per volume.
Motion Solution?
Brushless motors with integrated controls.
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Semiconductor Processing Equipment:
Wafer Handling
Challenge?
Increase wafer processing
throughput; reduce waste;
increase reliability; handle
safely for two-sided wafers,
all to make the process
better quality and reduce
costs.
Motor/Motion Need?
Highly reliable, fast
acceleration, high-precision
positioning.
Motion Solution?
Brushless motors with integrated encoder and motor drive in a compact
package.
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UAV Camera Stabilization
Challenge?
UAV mounted cameras are
subject to unpredictable
weather and wind
conditions. How do you
stabilize the camera with a
motorized gimbal in real
time under changing
conditions?
Motor/Motion Need?
Fast acceleration, light,
efficient motion system.
Motion Solution?
Eliminate the weight and delay of brush DC geared systems with
a smaller, lighter direct drive brushless motor and control.
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