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Mike Kavanagh, Nick Mackarey, Marissa Reuther
Chapter 28: The Cold War and American Globalism
1945-1961
pg. 767-794
From Allies to Advances
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WWII effects international system
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Germany is ruins, Great Britain over strained and exhausted, France had international
division, Japan was weakened, China headed to civil war
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World devastated economically
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Collapse of Germany and Japan leaves power vacuum
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Decolonization
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Third Worlds created
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Financial constraints and nationalist rebellions forced imperial states to set colonies free
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Great Britain left India, Pakistan (1947) and Burma and Sri Lanka (1948)
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US leave Philippines 1946
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Dutch leave Indonesia 1949
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Lebanon (1943), Syria (1946), Jordan (19460 gain independence
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Referred to as Third World States
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US and Soviets viewed them as political allies
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Stalin’s Aims
Soviets were not concerned about preventing another invasion of their homeland
Less secure than US because of large land mass
Geographical frontiers of USSA hard to defend
Siberia (mineral resources)
6 thousand miles east of Moscow and vulnerable to Japan and China
Western soviet union destroyed by WW1
Soviet territorial objectives were limited
Stalin did not want world domination
Wanted to push USSR’s borders and include Baltic States
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US Economic and Strategic Needs
Leadership in US was extremely confident in the immediate security of the country’s
borders
American immune from attacks during war
Some occasional fire
Least amount of casualties
Strongest power at the end of the war
Plentiful resources, atomic bomb
Fearful of Soviets taking advantage of economical/economical instability in Europe
US looks for bases overseas to keep USSR at bay
Sought quick reconstruction of nations
World economy based on free trade
Soviets refuse to join World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) 1994
Said that US dominated both and used them to promote private investment and open
international commerce
1945 World Bank made loans to help reconstruction projects
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IMF helped members meet balance-of-payments through currency loans.
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Stalin and Truman
Joseph Stalin
hostile to Western nations and ruthless to own people
did not wish for immediate war
aware of country's weakness due top world war.
Saw long time threat of Germany and Japan
clinically paranoid about them
Harry Truman
“Them” vs “us” world view
glossed over nuances, ambiguities, and counter evidence
constantly exaggerated everything
displayed toughness that became trademark of American cold war diplomacy.
The Beginnings of the Cold War
Origins thought of as a process
began in 1917 with Bolshevik Revolution and Western powers hostile response.
By Spring 1947 no question that the battle had started.
First clash in Poland 1945
Soviets refused to follow Polish government-in-exile in London to be a government of communist
government that Moscow sponsored
Also snuffed out civil liberties in Romania.
Encouraged communist coups in Hungary 1947 and Czechoslovakia 1948
Moscow officials said that US was helping the enemy (Germany)
Soviet attempt to defend actions
protested that the US was meddling in Eastern Europe
American clandestine meetings with anti-soviet groups
American calls for elections that would make anti Soviet regimes
American use of loans to gain political influence.
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Atomic Diplomacy
practiced by US
maintaining nuclear monopoly to secure soviets into diplomatic concessions
Secretary of State James F Byrnes
thought bomb gave US bargaining power
Secretary of War Henry L Stinson disagreed
Truman refused to turn over weapon to international authority
Baruch Plan 1946
provided for US abandonment of its atomic monopoly only after the world's fissionable materials
were brought under the authority of an international agency
made soviets furious and led to nuclear arms race
By 946 Grand Alliance was a memory
Soviets and Americans clashed on every front
US deny reconstruction loan to USSR but gives to Great Britain
Helped different groups in Iran
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Warnings from Kennan and Churchill
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George F Kennan
American charge de'affaires in Moscow February 1946
sent long telegraph to Washington asserting that Soviet fanaticism made even a temporary
understanding impossible
Aided belief that only toughness would work against soviets
Churchill gives speech in London (former prime minister)
soviets made “iron Curtain” and cut off Eastern Europe from West.
Called for Anglo American partnership to resist soviets
Tensions had implications on United Nations
Five great powers (had permanent seats) Unites States, USSR, Great Britain, China, France
could all exercise a veto
UN needed all to cooperate to be effective
Truman Doctrine
early 1947 British request American help in Greece to defend their conservative clientgovernment in a civil war.
Truman requests $400 million to give to Greece and Turkey
Congress was trying to spend less money
Truman gives speech
claimed that communism imperiled the world.
“Truman Doctrine”
“I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting
attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”
Inevitable Cold War?
Two powers locked in a tense struggle for world domination
could not be avoided all together
seemed inevitable even before the end of WWII
had hostile history, both military powerful, divided sharply politically and economically.
Neither side's leaders wanted the war
both were too unwilling to cooperate with each other
Containment in Action
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Lippmann's Critique
veteran journalist Walter Lippmann wrote book The Cold War 1947, called out containment
policy as a “strategic monstrosity”, and failed to distinguish between areas vital and peripheral to
US security,
thought that the president put too little emphasis on diplomacy.
US began to build international economic and defensive network to protect American prosperity
and security and to advance US hegemony.
Western Europe objectives
economic reconstruction
foster political environment friendly to the US
sought ouster of communists from governments
to maintain political stability, US officials worked to keep the decolonization of European
empires orderly.
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Marshall Plan
first instrument designed to achieve US goals in Western Europe
European nations lacked the money to buy vital American made goods.
Americans skeptical that depression would return if they make the same global economic
mistakes
Secretary of State George C Marshall
June 1947 announced that US would finance a massive European recovery program.
Sent $12.4 billion to western Europe
required that Europeans spend the foreign-aid dollars in the US on American made products.
Had mixed success
caused inflation, did not solve balance-of-payment problem, divided Europe into East and West.
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National Security Act
July 1947
Created the Office of Secretary of Defense (Department of Defense) which oversaw all branches
of armed services, the National Security Council (NSO) of high level officials to advise the
president, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to conduct spy operations
Stalin responds by hardening Cold War stance.
Forbade communist satellite governments in eastern Europe to accept Marshall Plan aid and
ordered communist parties in western Europe to work to thwart the plan.
Created Cominform
organization designed to coordinate communist activities around the world.
Had tighter grip on Eastern Europe
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Berlin Blockade and Airlift
June 1948 Americans, French, and British agreed to fuse their German zones.
Sought to integrate West Germany into the western European economy,
own German currency.
Soviets respond by cutting off Western land access to the jointly occupied Berlin
Truman orders massive airlift of food, fuel, and other supplies to Berlin
Soviets lift blockade May 1949 and founded German Democratic Republic (East Germany)
Airlift saved Truman's political career.
April 1949 twelve nations sign mutual defense treaty
agree that an attack on one nation would be considered an attack on all.
Established North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
By summer 1949 Truman and administration enjoyed success of foreign policy.
Containment working just as expected, Berlin blockade defeated, NATO had been formed.
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Twin Shocks
Two momentous developments that made Americans feel in even greater danger than before
1. An American reconnaissance aircraft detected unusually high radioactivity in the atmosphere.
Soviets had tested atomic bomb
American nuclear monopoly erased
2. China had completed conquest
now nation's largest and most populated countries were ruled by communists.
One was in possession of atomic possession
Truman gives the OK for development of a hydrogen bomb. The “Super”
ordered team to review foreign policy and adapt
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• IV. The Cold War in Asia
A. Chinese Civil War
a. Despite Jiang Jieshi’s corruption and recalcitrance, the United States continued to back
him against Mao Zedong.
b. Mao defeated Jiang and established the People’s Republic of China.
c. Truman did not recognize the new republic.
B. Vietnam’s Quest for Independence
a. The Vietnamese resisted colonialism, and when French authority collapsed during World
War II
b. the Vietminh declared independence in 1945
c. The Cold War gave the United States several reasons to reject Vietnamese autonomy.
d. The United States bore most of the financial costs of the French war against the Vietminh.
• V. The Korean War
A. U.S. Forces Intervene
a. The United Nations’ Security Council voted to aid South Korea and Truman ordered
American troops into the region without seeking congressional approval
b. MacArthur staged a brilliant amphibious landing behind enemy lines that forced the
North Koreans to retreat
B. Chinese Entry into the War
a. When the Chinese sent thousands of troops into North Korea, MacArthur demanded fullscale bombing of China
C. Truman’s Firing of MacArthur
a. MacArthur denounced Truman’s actions regarding China
b. leading the President to fire him
c. Truman didn’t tolerate public mockery and second guessing from one of his own generals
D. Peace Agreement
a. Thousands of North Korean and Chinese prisoners did not want to go home
b. the United States did not return them
c. In July 1953, an armistice was signed
d. The boundary between North and South Korea was established near the 38th parallel and
a demilitarized zone was established between the two
E. Consequences of the War
a. More than 4 million people died in this limited war
b. The powers of the presidency grew during the war
c. the stalemated war helped elect Eisenhower
d. Worldwide military containment became entrenched as U.S. policy causing an escalation
in defense spending and an arms race between 6 the United States and the Soviet Union.
• VI. Unrelenting Cold War
A. “Massive Retaliation”
a. “Liberation,” “massive retaliation,” and the “New Look” military became bywords of
American foreign policy
b. Backed by increasing stockpiles of nuclear weapons, the United States practiced
“brinkmanship.”
c. Eisenhower popularized the “domino theory.”
B. CIA as Foreign Policy Instrument
a. The CIA put foreign leaders on its payroll, subsidized foreign labor unions, and
engaged in “disinformation” campaigns.
b. The CIA also launched covert operations to subvert governments in the Third World.
C. Nuclear Buildup
a. American production of the incredibly powerful hydrogen bomb increased SovietAmerican tensions.
b. Following Soviet advances in missile technology, made obvious in the firing of the
world’s first ICBM and the propelling of Sputnik into orbit, the United States stepped
up its missile research and created NASA in 1958.
c. Eisenhower preferred using propaganda to fight the Soviets, as seen in the “Peopleto-People” campaign, cultural exchanges, and participation in trade fairs.
D. Rebellion in Hungary
a. When troops crushed a revolt against Soviet power in Hungary, America could do
nothing to help the rebels without risking full-scale war.
E. U-2 Incident
a. The Soviets walked out of the 1960 Paris summit when the Americans refused to
apologize for U-2 spy missions.
b. Created increasing tensions between the United States and Soviet Union
F. Formosa Resolution
a. The Formosa Resolution of 1955 allowed deployment of American forces to defend
the Formosan islands of Jinmen and Mazu, which prompted China to develop nuclear
capability by 1964.
• VII. The Struggle for the Third World
A. Interests in the Third World
a. Decolonization advanced rapidly after 1945
b. The Soviets and the Americans sought alliances with the new nations.
c. Many Third World nations did not want to take sides in the Cold War and declared
themselves nonaligned.
d. American leaders often saw the Third World’s people as emotional, irrational, and
dependent.
B. Racism and Segregation
a. as U.S. Handicaps American racism became an embarrassment and a liability in efforts to
befriend Third World nations.
b. Believing that Third World nationalist revolutions were aimed at American allies and at
American investments, the United States was hostile toward those revolutions.
c. This hostility hurt the United States in its quest for influence in the Third World.
C. Development and Modernization
a. The United States sought to aid developing nations in order to foster stability.
b. The United States also directed propaganda toward the Third 8 World to persuade Third
World peoples to abandon radical doctrines and neutralism.
c. People in the developing nations both envied and resented the United States.
D. Intervention in Guatemala
a. The CIA helped overthrow Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in Guatemala in 1951 because the
United Fruit Corporation disliked his confiscation of their lands.
E. The Cuban Revolution and Fidel Castro
a. Fidel Castro’s ouster of Fulgencio Batista in Cuba sparked a serious crisis.
b. When Cuba moved into a closer relationship with the Soviets, Eisenhower ordered the
CIA to organize an invasion force of Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro.
c. The CIA also plotted to assassinate Castro.
d. As Cuba moved even closer to the Soviet Union, Eisenhower broke diplomatic relations
with the island nation.
F. Arab-Israeli Conflict
a. The United States recognized the new nation of Israel in 1948.
b. American policy in the Middle East centered on upholding Israel and protecting the
region’s extensive oil holdings.
G. Suez Crisis
a. In 1956, Egypt nationalized the British-owned Suez Canal.
b. The Israelis, British, and French moved against Egypt, but the United States refused to
support them.
H. Eisenhower Doctrine
a. Eisenhower declared that the United States would intervene in the Middle East if any
government threatened by a communist takeover asked for aid.
b. The Vietminh surrounded French troops at Dienbienphu, forcing France to end the war.
I. Geneva Accords on Vietnam
a. A peace accord divided Vietnam and set a 1956 election to unify the county
b. Diem and Eisenhower, believing the communists would win, refused to hold the election.
J. National Liberation Front
a. The United States backed a corrupt and repressive regime in South Vietnam.
b. Communists in South Vietnam organized the National Liberation Front, know as the
Vietcong