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Natural Resources
Strategies and its
 Working papers of IRMA –
 152- Managing India’s water resources, some issues and
options by Dr Katar Singh Year-January 2001
 148- Irrigation with a manual pump, impact on farming
enterprise and food security in coastal Orissa by M.
Dinesh Kumar Year- August 2000
 130- Forest degradation and changing livelihood among
the Juang and the Saora tribal communities of Orissa by
Smita Mishra Panda Year- June 1999
Some Options
Property Rights in water
Legal and Institutional Framework
Pricing of Water and Removal of
Imperfections in water Markets
Using New Technologies
Property Rights in water
The author suggests that a National Water
Development and Management Board should be
created by the act of parliament.
Ownership rights should be necessarily vested in the
Panchayati Raj Institutions.
 The water users should be organized in the form of
cooperatives or a company at the level of village or
 Every water user will buy share of the company
have jurisdiction over the village or town of residence
of the user.
Theses shares should be transferable and saleable.
Legal and Institutional Framework
 NABARD issues restrictions are in the form of minimum
spacing requirements between tube-wells financed by
 This has drawbacks because the rich farmers resort to
borrowing from non-institutional sources and thereby
bypass these restrictions.
Pricing of Water and Removal of
Imperfections in water Markets
 In India, water market exists in many agricultural
advance areas such as Punjab, Haryana and many parts
of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
 These are informal, unregulated and have several
imperfections. It is quite possible that the market price
do not reflect the real resource cost of water and its real
 Besides lots of government interventions in the form of
subsidies, quotas etc. that limits the scope of the
interpretation of the real use value of water.
 A survey of 100 farmers conducted in two purposively
selected villages in the Kheda district of Gujarat, it was
found that the sample farmers were willing to pay 150 to
300 percent of the prevailing tariff or timely and
adequate supply of irrigation water.
Using New Technologies
 chemical fertilizers and pesticides later proved to be
harmful. There is also a need of public investment in
developing water saving and water treatment
 To ensure safe and healthy lifestyle new technologies
must be carefully evaluated before they are
recommended for wider use
Treadle Pump
It is a foot-operated water lifting device.
Originally developed in Bangladesh in the
early 1980’s.
Popularly known as Krishi Bandhu Pump.
This modern exploration techniques
brought to light the ground water
potential in many places in Orissa.
Reasons for it’s use in Orissa
55% of people live below the poverty line.
Need to increase agricultural production.
IDE( International Development
Enterprise) works to improve the condition
of poor by mass marketing low-cost
Started its operation in India with the
promotion of Treadle Pump in 1994.
Socio-economic dynamics in 2 villagesSalajanga and Sunugoradi
Village economy depended on rain-fed
agriculture earlier.
Treadle pump owing farmer can grow a
variety of vegetable crops in two seasons.
In past one year ,18.19 acre of land has
been irrigated using Treadle Pump
Operated by standing on two bamboo levers.
Uses a bamboo or a flexible pipe or a suction
tube well to pump water from a depth of 5.45 to
5.75 m.
It is a low speed ,fast-operating reciprocating
Produce a discharge of 1-2 litres of water per
Easy available
Economically –viable
Easiness in operation
Now require inputs in the form of seeds,
fertilizers, pesticides.
No need to migrate to cities for low paid jobs
during off-season.
Anyone can operate from children to
Till date , 51000 pumps have been installed(
helps in significant reduction in Carbon
Increased output from agricultural productions.
Better access to food supplies
Forest- another indispensable natural
resource, is a complex ecosystem consisting
mainly of trees that buffer the earth and
support a myriad of life forms.
Forest Degradation- generally do not mean
decrease in woody vegetation but as a gradual
reduction in biomass, changes in species
composition and soil degradation. It does not
involve reduction of the forest area but
quality decrease in its condition.
Differential impact of forest degradation on women
and men can be judged through six critical
aspects time
 nutrition
 health
socio-cultural survival networks
knowledge systems that are linked with the
increasing drudgery of women
Forest Degradation in the two tribal areas has
leaded to: Fewer large trees in the forest area
 Reduction in large trees led to declination of
shrubs and smaller plants and thereby loss of
 Decline in number of animals
 Shortening of the swidden fallow period to three
 Decline in the swidden yields
 Hardening of the swidden soils, made digging a
cumbersome task
 Flooding of the foothill lands during the monsoon
season due to soil erosion, and
 Reduction of regenerative capacity of the
swidden lands.
Introduction of Plough Cultivation
Privatization and Commoditisation of Swidden
Influence of the Monetized Economy
Male Migration among the Saora
• Water resources and sustainable development- Kamta Prasad
Name of Publisher- Shipra Publication, Delhi
Reference Code- 33.91 PRA
Tribal women and forest economy- Walter Fernandes and Geeta Menon
Name of Publisher- Indian Social Institute
Year- 1987
Reference Code- 307.7 FER
Garima Suman(15)
Megha Sinha(25)
Rashmi Rekha(38)