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Japan Modernization The Meiji Era ¥ Meiji was known as the enlightened era. It reigned from 1867 to 1924. ¥ Emperor Meiji cooperated with Oligarchy, and commanded them to except change. ¥ Emperor Meiji sent people to study in Europe, North America, and Germany. Because they seemed the strongest in the world because of a constitution. ¥ In 1910 Japan imposed the annexation of Korea ¥ In the 1800’s Japan forced open their trade with the U.S. and other Western Powers, because technology and political systems where lagging far behind. Why Japan Invaded other Asian countries ¥ In 1895 Japan improved its strength with the international community by defeating China, and annexed Taiwan. ¥ Russia and Japan started to fight over the control of the Korean peninsula and Manchuria in 1905 it was called the Russo-Japanese war. ¥ Japan won the war and became confident that they could rival Western powers. ¥ The Japanese people began to feel the duty to protect their Asian neighbors from Western colonial Imperialism. More on Japan invading other countries ¥ Korea was officially annexed in 1910, while they still tried to control Manchuria. ¥ Japanese politics became increasingly dominated by military. ¥ The militarists pushed to take control over China, and in 1920 due to many economic and social upheaval led many Japanese farmers to move to Manchuria to release tensions in Japan. Japan ends isolation ¥ In 1853 Japans seclusion with the arrival of the United States Naval ¥ fleet commanded by Commodore Matthew Perry, he was instructed to open Japans foreign trade and diplomatic contact. ¥ The Edo bakufu recognized the United States military superiority signed a treaty of friendship during Perry's second visit in 1854. ¥ The Netherlands, Russia, Britain, and France followed the lead of the U.S. By 1859 the bakufu was pressured into signing a series of “ unequal treaties” by opening several Japanese ports to foreign trade. ¥ Western nationals were given the right of extraterritoriality, or exemption from local law, tariff rates were established so the Japanese government could not alter anything ¥ Many Japanese regarded the surrender to the west as a national humiliation and the bakufs authority declined. Japanese Modernization ¥ During the 1870s the army quelled a number of rebellions by former samurai who objected to rapid modernization. ¥ The ill-fated Satsuma rebellion of 1877 led by Saigo who resigned from the government in 1873, It was also the last major challenge to the new regime. ¥ The imperial government also laid the foundations for an industrial economy. ¥ Modern money and banking systems were introduced, railroads, telegraphs, and telephone lines, factories were built, using the newest technology, and private enterprises were subsidized, and laws permitting private ownership of land were enhanced More on Modernization ¥ Leaders like Arinori Mori helped create a modern educational system. ¥ In 1827 compulsory universal education was instituted. ¥ By 1905 nearly 95% of Japanese school-age children were in school, and Japan soon achieved one of the highest literacy rates in the world. ¥ By the 1890’sJapan’s rapid modernization had made it the most powerful nation in Asia, by 1899 extraterritoriality was relinquished by Britain, the United States, and other western powers. ¥ Using its growing economic and military power Japan sought to build an empire of its own. Timeline of Major Events in Japan ¥ 1854- The forced Treaty of Kangawa is signed between Japanese and U.S. Admiral Perry, opening trade between Japan and a western nation for the first time in nearly two centuries. ¥ 1855- Russia and Japan establish diplomatic relations ¥ 1864- British, French, Dutch, and American warships bombard Shimonoseki and open even more ports to international trade. ¥ 1868- Shogun Yoshinobu resigns and the Tokugawa dynasty ends. The emperor or “Mikado” Meiji is restored, and the capital now located in Edo (Tokyo). ¥ 1870- Meiji dismantles the feudal system and forbids landlords from retaining private armies. ¥ 1872- The first railway line between Tokyo and Yokohama is inaugurated. ¥ 1873- Japan grants religious freedom and adopts the Gregorian calendar. ¥ 1875- Russia exchanges the Kurile Islands for the Island of Sakhalin with Japan. ¥ 1889- Emperor Meiji promulgates a parliamentary constitution. Timeline Cont. ¥ 1894- Japan invades China (first sino-japanese war) ¥ K. 1895- Japan defeats China and gains Taiwan as well as supremacy over Korea. ¥ 1902- Japan signs the London Treaty with Britain that recognizes Japan’s rights in Korea and Britain’s rights in China. ¥ 1904-Japan attacks Russia in Manchuria, destroying the Russian fleet at Port Arthur and invades Korea ¥ 1905- 100,000 soldiers die in Battle of Mukden between Russian and Japan. Japan destroys the Russian navy in The battle of the Tsushina Straits. Russia withdraws from Manchuria, loses Sakhalin, and recognizes a Japanese protectorate over Korea (Treaty of Portsmouth), the first time that a nonEuropean country defeats a European power. ¥ 1910- Japan annexes Korea and thereby terminates the Choson dynasty. U.S.-Japanese Diplomatic Relations Then ¥ 1. Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy forced the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. ¥ 2. When he returned in February 1854, the Japanese, aware that none of their armaments was a match for Perry's warships, agreed to admit U.S. ships to the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate and to accept a U.S. consul at Shimoda. ¥ 3. The Treaty of Kanagawa was the first of the treaties signed between Japan and other Western countries in the 19th century. U.S. Japanese Diplomatic Relations Now ¥ The United States' close and cooperative relationship with Japan is the cornerstone of U.S. policy in Asia and the basis of a strong, productive partnership in addressing global issues. ¥ Despite different social and cultural traditions, Japan and the United States have much in common. Both have open, democratic societies, high literacy rates, freedom of expression, multiparty political systems, universal suffrage, and open elections. Both have highly developed free-market industrial economies and favor an open and active international trading system. ¥ The U.S. supports Japan's goal of obtaining a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. ¥ Together the U.S. and Japan account for a little more than 30% of the global economy’s GDP and 60% of the Western industrialized nations' GDP ¥ Japan also is the largest foreign market for U.S. agricultural products, with total agricultural imports valued at close to $17 billion in 1996. ¥ The U.S. currently maintains over 40,000 forces in Japan, more than half of whom are stationed in Okinawa.