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Unit 6: Economic Geo Review
Human Development Index
economics (GDP per capita), social (literacy rate & level of education), and
demographic factors (life expectancy)
Motor Vehicles per Capita
Industrial Regions
• Industrial Rev. began in England
Regions of East
Balanced Growth
• through Self-Sufficiency
• A country should spread investment as
equally as possible across all sectors of its
economy and in all regions.
– Incomes in rural areas keep pace with urban
– Businesses remain independent of foreign
– Limit imports through tariffs and quotas
• Liberal Models by definition
– Rostow’s Model
– All countries are capable of development
– All countries follow the same model of
• For countries that have developed in modern times
– only China has followed THE model of
– Economic disparities are a result of short term
inefficiencies in local or regional market forces
International Trade Approach
• Some countries have switched from selfsufficiency approach to international trade
International Trade Approach
• World Trade Organization (1995) works to
reduce barriers to international trade by
– Negotiate reductions in trade restrictions,
such as quotas & tariffs
– Enforces trade agreements
• Lends to countries with balance
of payments problems
• Pushes for economic reforms
• Reports on policies in member states
World Bank:
• Aims to help development by advising and
lending – with many conditions
• Countries encouraged to lift import and export
barriers, cut subsidies and remove price controls
Models of Development
• Structuralist Models
– Dependency Theory
– Regional disparities are a structural feature of
the global economy
• Neo-Colonialism
– Things have come to be organized or
structured in a certain way and cannot be
changed easily
– Old method of industrializing is no longer
possible because other factors have changed
Wallerstein’s World Systems
Processes that incorporate higher
levels of education, higher
salaries, and more technology
* Generate more wealth in the
world economy
Processes that incorporate lower
levels of education, lower
salaries, and less technology
* Generate less wealth in the world
Places where core and periphery
processes are both occurring.
Places that are exploited by the
core but then exploit the
* Serves as a buffer between core
and periphery
Four Dragons
• Aka Four Tigers or Gang of Four
• S. Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong
• Lacked natural resources
• Strongly influenced by Japan’s success
• Concentrated on handful of manufactured
• Low labor costs
• Entrepot - sell to MDCs
Millennium Development Goals
• Adopted by world leaders in the year 2000 and set to be
achieved by 2015, the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) provide concrete, numerical benchmarks for
tackling extreme poverty in its many dimensions.
The MDGs also provide a framework for the entire
international community to work together towards a
common end – making sure that human development
reaches everyone, everywhere. If these goals are
achieved, world poverty will be cut by half, tens of
millions of lives will be saved, and billions more people
will have the opportunity to benefit from the global
Millennium Development Goals
The eight MDGs break down into 21 quantifiable targets that are
measured by 60 indicators.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for
• All industries want to maximize profits by
minimizing costs so if choose locations
based on
– Energy
– Labor
– Transportation
– Or Footloose
Location Models
Weber’s Model
Manufacturing plants will
locate where costs are
Hotelling’s Model
the least (least cost
Location of an industry
cannot be understood
without reference to
other industries of the
Least Cost Theory
same kind.
Costs: Transportation,
Labor, Agglomeration
Losch’s Model
Manufacturing plants
choose locations where
they can maximize profit.
Zone of Profitability
Least Cost Theory
Alfred Weber’s model – owners of
manufacturing plants seek to
minimize costs through:
1) Transportation, and
2) labor
3) agglomeration
– Weight-losing / weight-gaining
Hotelling’s Model
• Harold Hotelling (1895-1973)
• Locational Interdependence
• Originally locate near customers – but will gravitate
to each other to maximize profits
• The costs for some customers will be greater if the
2 sellers cluster – further to walk. Also fewer
customers aware of service. But can’t move for fear
of losing customers.
Changing Markets
• Outsourcing
• New international division of labor
– Moving industry to low-cost labor
• Just-in-time Delivery
• Post-Fordist system – more flexible, less
mass produced (time-space compression)
• deindustrialization
Break of bulk points
Informal economy
High-tech corridors