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Transcript
The symbiotic relationship
between land and water
management
Wim Cofino, Jochen Froebrich, Bart Snellen
Wageningen University and Research Centre
Contents


Value of ecosystems
Case studies illustrating the symbiotic relationship
between land and water management

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Aral sea
Swiss water management
Adaptation to climate change in Rhine
Conceptual approach
Conclusions
The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity
EU study led by Pavan Sukhdev

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Nature has high value for mankind but defies
valuation.
The lack of valuation underlies the degradation of
ecosystems and the loss of biodiversity.
The poor are the immediate beneficiaries of many
of the services of ecosystems and biodiversity
Annual natural capital losses are typically
estimated at a few percentage points of GDP
Natural capital losses disadvantage the poor
disproportionally
TEEB interim report 2008
Case study: Aral Sea
The degradation of the Aral Sea
Объм (куб.км)
1080
1200
1000
800
600
400
993
Volume of
the Aral Sea
1961 to 2006
940
779
Salinity increase from ca
14 to 100 g/l
616
430
299
230
142
200
0
1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
105
ARAL SEA – 2008
… the environmental costs
are so high that they go
beyond the economic
capacity of the newly
independent republics in
Central Asia.
- The World Bank
Ecological and socio-economic impacts


Loss of biodiversity
Disruption of ecosystem services





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Fisheries
Climate regulation
Drinking water
Desertification
Unemployment
Impacts on human health


75% of people in basin suffer from illnesses
70% of fisherman are pre-cancerous
Case studies: Hydrological benefits of land-use and
ecosystems
Land-use changes may result in lower run-off and more
storage of water in soils


Reduction of peak heights during floodings
Release of water during droughts
Switzerland: Active use of Ecosystem
approach

Forests provide range of ecosystem services




Protection against landslides, avalanches
Provision of high quality drinking water
Flood mitigation
1991 Flood policy



Flood protection and ecological concerns
complimentary
Spatial planning and maintenance water courses high
priority measures
Structural measures only if former cannot meet
required level of protection
Netherlands: adapting to climate change in Rhine
River
One way to fight floods………
Adaptation measures in the river bed
Dike relocation
Deepening riverbed
Flood bypass or ‘green rivers’
Removal obstacles in floodplains
Enlargment of groynes
Floodplain lowering
The third way: benefit from (anticipated) changes in
land-use!?
Eururalis scenario study on development rural area’s


Substantial decrease in
agriculture foreseen in
scenario’s A1, B1 and B2
(up to 10%, surface area
equivalent to Denmark +
Germany)
Shift to forest/nature,
urbanisation second
Same principle, different objectives…
Dutch Three Step Strategy to Half moons for water
harvesting - Illela, Niger
as measure to 1) control
flooding and 2) combat
drought



Retain water
Store water
Discharge excess water
Image: www.fao.org
Comprehensive Assessment (IWMI)
Comprehensive
assessment IWMI: change the way
we think about water
Land-cover may also affect precipitation


Obvious max in 30-yr avg
Cause: topography or land
cover?
Scenario study
Meso-scale model RAMS (2 km x 2 km grid cells)
 RAMS runs



Control
No forest
No topography
Differences in precipitation (spatial) – May 2005
No Topology scenario
No Forest scenario
Location of maximum, blue indicates less precipitation than control run
No topology and no-forest scenario result both in about 10% reduction of precipitat
Conceptual model for ecosystems in relation to
water
Functioning ecosystem/regulation wate
Rain
Ecological services
Inputs
“GDP of the poor” (TEEB, 2008)
Landscape
Water stock
Flow excess water
Conclusions (I)


We have to step out of water box as stated in the
1992 Dublin principles
GWP IWRM definition already refers to
coordination land and water management:
…..the co-ordinated development and management of
water, land and related resources…..

Pro-active joint management of water- and land
resources is essential

From IWRM to Integrated natural resource
management
Conclusions (II)

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Terrestrial ecosystems represent water stocks and
determine water flows
Sustainable management demands regeneration of stocks
in space and time
Managing ecosystems implies managing water resources
Ecosystem services have high values which are not
accounted for in GDP
Ecosystem degradation affects poor directly and has an
insufficiently recognized significance for all basins world
wide
Thank you for your attention