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Transcript
BASIC CHEMISTRY
CHM 138
CHAPTER 8
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC
CHEMISTRY
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
• Organic chemistry:
-The branch of chemistry that deals with carbons
compounds.
• ‘Organic’ – derived from living organisms
• Study of compounds extracted from living organisms
and their natural products.
• Examples: sugar, starch, urea, waxes, carbohydrates,
fats and etc
• Human are composed of organic molecules – proteins
in skin, lipid in cell membranes, glycogen in livers and
the DNA in the nuclei of cells.

Chemistry of carbon:
- Two stable isotops (13C and 12C)
- electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p2
- four valence electrons
- can form more compounds than any other
element
- able to form single, double and triple carboncarbon bonds, and to link up with each other
in chains and ring structures
HOMOLOGUE SERIES AND FUNCTIONAL
GROUPS


Functional group:
A group of atoms that is largely responsible for the
chemical behavior of the parent molecule.
Functional groups:
- hydrocarbons
- alcohols
- aldehydes
- ketones
- carboxylic acids
- alkyl halides
HYDROCARBONS
• Made up of only hydrogen and carbon
ALKANES

General formula:
CnH2n+2, where n = 1, 2, ….

Only single covalent bonds are present

Known as saturated hydrocarbons because
contain the maximum number of hydrogen
atoms that can bond with the number of carbon
atoms present.

Can be assumed to be sp3-hydridized
Structures of the first four alkanes
The melting and boiling points of the
straight-chain isomers of the first 10 alkanes
Homologous Series
1.
2.
3.
Definition: A series of compounds in which
each member differs from the next by a
specific number and kind of atoms.
Alkanes: Differ only at number of (CH2)
Series of compounds that has the same
functional group.
INITIAL NAMES OF THE HOMOLOGOUS
SERIES
Number of carbon atoms, n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Name
Meth
Eth
Prop
But
Pent
Hex
Hept
Oct
Non
Dec
NAMING ALKANES
• Alkyl groups are used to name organic compounds.
• The general formula of an alkyl group is CnH2n+1.
• The letter “R” is often used in formulas to represent any
of the possible alkyl groups.
R= CnH2n+1 (any alkyl group)
R = CH3 —
methyl group
R = CH3CH2 — ethyl group
IUPAC RULES
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
RULE 1. Select the longest continuous chain of
carbon atoms as the parent compound.


Consider all alkyl groups attached to it as branch
chains or substituents that have replaced hydrogen
atoms of the parent hydrocarbon. If two chains of
equal length are found, use the chain that has the
larger number of substituents attached to it.
The alkane’s name consists of the parent
compound’s name prefixed by the names of the
alkyl groups attached to it.
This structure has 2 chains.
This chain has 6 carbon atoms.
1
2
3
4
5
6
CH3
CH2
CH
CH2
CH2
CH3
CH3
This chain has 4 carbon atoms.
1
CH3
2
CH2
3
CH
CH3
4
CH2
CH2
CH3
This is the longest continuous chain.
Select this chain as the parent compound.
1
CH3
2
CH2
3
CH
CH3
4
CH2
5
CH2
6
CH3
1
CH3
2
CH2
3
CH
4
CH2
5
CH2
6
CH3
CH3
This is a methyl group.
It is a branch chain and can be considered to have
replaced a hydrogen on the parent compound.
1
CH3
2
CH2
3
CH
4
CH2
5
CH2
6
CH3
CH3
The name of the compound is 33-methylhexane.
IUPAC RULES
RULE 2. Number the carbon atoms in the parent carbon
chain starting from the end closest to the first carbon atom
that has an alkyl group substituted for a hydrogen atom.

If the first subsitutent from each end is on the samenumbered carbon, go to the next substituent to
determine which end of the the chain to start
numbering.
If the chain is numbered left to right, the
isopropyl group is on carbon 5.
1 2
3
isopropyl
group
4
5
6
7
8
If the chain is numbered right to left, the isopropyl
group is on carbon 4.
Use right to left numbering so that the isopropyl
group is on the lowest numbered carbon.
4-isopropyloctane
8 7
isopropyl
group
6
5
4
3
2
1
IUPAC RULES
RULE 3. Name each alkyl group and designate its position on
the parent carbon chain by a number (e.g., 2-methyl means
group attached to C-2).
5
4
3
2-isopropyl pentane
2
1
RULE 4. When the same alkyl-group branch chain appears
more than once, indicate this repetition by a prefix (di-, tri-,
tetra- and so forth) written in front of the alkyl group name
(e.g. dimethyl indicates two methyl groups).
–The numbers indicating the alkyl-group positions are separated by a
command and followed by a hyphen and are placed in front of the
name (e.g., 2,3-dimethyl).
5
4
The methyl group
appears twice
3
2
1
2,3-dimethylpentane
RULE 5. When several different alkyl groups are attached to
the parent compound, list them in alphabetical order (e.g.
ethyl before methyl in 3-ethyl-4-methyloctane). Prefixes
are not included in alphabetical ordering (ethyl comes
before dimethyl).
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
methyl
ethyl
3-ethyl-4-methyloctane
8


Alkanes can have many different types of
substituents.
For example:
NO2 Br
1
2
CH3 CH
3
4
CH
CH3
5
CH3
3-bromo-2-nitropentane
CYCLIC HYDROCARBONS


utane
A hydrocarbon that contains carbon atoms joined to
form a ring.
Cycloalkanes – all carbons of the ring are saturated
cyclopropane
cyclopentane
cyclobutane
cyclopentane
cyclohexane
cyclohexane
NOMENCLATURE OF
CYCLOALKANES

Similar to that alkanes. For examples:
CH3
CH3
=
methylcyclopentane
4 32
5 61
CH2CH3
1-ethyl-3-methylcyclohexane
ISOMERISATION

-
Structural isomers:
Molecules that have the same molecular
formula, but different structure
Three isomers of pentane (C5H12)
STRUCTURE ISOMERS FOR
ALKANES
NAME
MOLECULAR
FORMULA
TOTAL OF ISOMERS
Methane
CH4
1
Ethane
C2H6
1
Propane
C3H8
1
Butane
C4H10
2
Pentane
C5H12
3
Hexane
C6H14
5
Heptane
C7H16
9
Octane
C8H18
18
Nonane
C9H20
35
Decane
C10H22
75
ALKENES






Also called olefins
Contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond
(C=C)
General formula, CnH2n (n=2,3,…)
Classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons
(compound with double or triple carbon-carbon
bonds that enable them to add hydrogen atoms.
sp2-hybridized
For example:
C2H4 - ethylene
CH2
CH2
ALKYNES



-
Alkynes contain at least carbon-carbon triple
bond.
General formula: CnH2n-2, where n = 2, 3,….
Alkyne nomenclature:
Used suffix –yne
Same as alkene nomenclature
1
HC
2
C
3
4
CH2CH3
1-butyne
1
H3C
2
C
3
C
2-butyne
4
CH3
Naming
Alkenes and
Alkynes
IUPAC RULES
RULE 1. Select the longest continuous carbon chain
that contains a double or triple bond.
This chain
contains 6
carbon atoms
RULE 2. Name this compound as you would an
alkane, but change –ane to –ene for an alkene and
to –yne for an alkyne.
This chain
contains 8
carbon atoms
Nameisthe
This
theparent
longest
continuous octene.
compound
chain.
Select it as the parent
compound.
RULE 2. Name this compound as you would an
alkane, but change –ane to –ene for an alkene and
to –yne for an alkyne.
This chain contains a
triple bond. Name the
parent compound
octyne.
RULE 3. Number the carbon chain of the
parent compound starting with the end nearer to
the double or triple bond. Use the smaller of the
two numbers on the double- or triple-bonded
carbon to indicate the position of the double or
triple bond. Place this number in front of the
alkene or alkyne name.
IUPAC RULES
This end of the chain is closest to the
double bond. Begin numbering here.
IUPAC RULES
The name of the parent compound is
1-octene.
4
3
2
1
5
6
7
8
IUPAC RULES
The name of the parent compound is
1-octyne.
4
3
2
1
5
6
7
8
RULE 4. Branched chains and other groups are
treated as in naming alkanes. Name the
substituent group, and designate its position on
the parent chain with a number.
IUPAC RULES
The
is attached to carbon 4.
Thisethyl
is an group
ethyl group.
4
3
2
1
5
6
7
8
4-ethyl-1-octene
IUPAC RULES
The ethyl group is attached to carbon 4.
4
3
2
1
5
6
7
8
4-ethyl-1-octyne
• must specify whether the molecule is cis or trans
(geometric isomer)
CH3
H3C
H
C
C
CHCH3
H
4-methyl-cis-2-pentene
H3C
H
H
C
C
CHCH3
CH3
4-methyl-trans-2-pentene
• cis – two particular atoms (or groups of atoms) are
adjacent to each other
• trans – the two atoms (or groups of atoms) are
across from each other
CYCLOALKENES

Contains C=C in the ring
cyclopropene

-
cyclobutene
cyclohexene
cyclopentene
Nomenclature of cycloalkenes:
Similar to that alkenes
Carbons atoms in the double bond are designated C1 and C2
6
5
4
1
2
CH3
3
1-methylcyclohexene
5
4
1
3
2
1,5-dimethylcyclopentene
AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

Contain one or more benzene rings
benzene ring
Benzene Kekulé Structure
6 carbons in a ring
3 double bonds
The structure of benzene can be represented
in two abbreviated ways.
The corner of each hexagon represents a carbon and
a hydrogen atom.
Naming Aromatic
Compounds
• A substituted benzene is derived by replacing
one or more of benzene’s hydrogen atoms with
an atom or group of atoms.
 A monosubstituted benzene has the formula
C6H5G where G is the group that replaces a
hydrogen atom.

All hydrogens in benzene are equivalent.

It does not matter which hydrogen is replaced
by G.
Monosubstituted
Benzenes
• Some monosubstituted benzenes are
named by adding the name of the
substituent group as a prefix to the
word benzene.
• The name is written as one word.
nitro group
nitrobenzene
ethyl group
ethylbenzene
Certain monosubstituted benzenes have special
names.
 These are parent names for further substituted
compounds.

hydroxy
group
methyl group
toluene
phenol
carboxyl group
amino group
benzoic acid
aniline
C6H5— is the phenyl group.
• It is used to name compounds that cannot be easily
named as benzene derivatives.

CH3CH=CHCHCH3
diphenylmethane
4-phenyl-2-pentene
Disubstituted Benzenes

Three isomers are possible when two
substituents replace hydrogen in a benzene
molecule.
• The prefixes ortho-, meta- and para- (o-, mand p-) are used to name these disubstituted
benzenes.
ortho disubstituted benzene
substituents on adjacent carbons
ortho-dichlorobenzene
(1,2-dichlorobenzene)
mp –17.2oC, bp 180.4oC
meta disubstituted benzene
substituents on adjacent carbons
meta-dichlorobenzene
(1,3-dichlorobenzene)
mp –24.82oC, bp 172oC
para disubstituted benzene
substituents are on opposite sides of
the benzene ring
para-dichlorobenzene
(1,4-dichlorobenzene)
mp 53.1, bp 174.4oC
When one substituent corresponds to a
monosubstituted benzene with a special name, the
monosubstituted compound becomes the parent
name for the disubstituted compound.
phenol
m-nitrophenol
When
one
substituent
corresponds
to
a
monosubstituted benzene with a special name, the
monosubstituted compound becomes the parent name
for the disubstituted compound.
toluene
m-nitrotoluene
Tri- and Polysubstituted
Benzenes
• When a benzene ring has three or more
substituents, the carbon atoms in the ring are
numbered.



Numbering starts at one of the substituent
groups.
The numbering direction can be clockwise or
counterclockwise.
Numbering must be in the direction that gives
the substituent groups the lowest numbers.
6-chloro
clockwise
numbering
1-chloro
6
4-chloro
5
1
4
2
3
1,4,6-trichlorobenzene
counterclockwise
numbering
2-chloro
chlorine substituents
have lower numbers
1-chloro
2
4-chloro
3
1
4
6
5
1,2,4-trichlorobenzene
• When a compound is named as a
derivative of the special parent
compound, the substituent of the parent
compound is considered to be C-1 of
the ring.
1
1
2
6
3
5
4
toluene
6
2
5
3
2,4,6trinitrotoluene
(TNT)
4
ALCOHOLS

Alcohols: Organic compounds containing hydroxyl (-OH)
functional groups.
R

OH
Phenols: Compounds with hydroxyl group bonded directly to
an aromatic (benzene) ring.
OH
CLASSIFICATION

According to the type of carbinol carbon atom (C bonded to the
–OH group).
C

OH
Classes:
i) Primary alcohol
- -OH group attached to a primary carbon atom
ii) Secondary alcohol
- -OH group attached to a secondary carbon atom
iii) Tertiary alcohol
- -OH group attached to a tertiary carbon atom
TYPE
i)
ii)
Primary (1°)
Secondary (2°)
STRUCTURE
H
R C
H
EXAMPLES
CH3
OH
R'
R C OH
H
CH3CH2-OH
CH3CHCH2 OH
ethanol
2-methyl-1-propanol
OH
2-butanol
iii)
Tertiary (3°)
R'
R C OH
R''
OH
H3C CH CH2CH3
cyclohexanol
CH3
H3C C OH
CH3
2-methyl-2-propanol
Polyhydroxy Alcohols
• Alcohols that contain more than one OH group
attached to different carbons are called polyhydroxy
alcohols.
• Monohydroxy: one OH group per molecule.
• Dihydroxy: two OH groups per molecule.
• Trihydroxy: three OH groups per molecule.
Naming Alcohols
IUPAC RULES
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms
containing the hydroxyl group.
Number the carbon atoms in this chain so that the one
bonded to the –OH group has the lowest possible
number.
Form the parent alcohol name by replacing the final –
e of the corresponding alkane name by –ol. When
isomers are possible, locate the position of the –OH by
placing the number (hyphenated) of the carbon atom
to which the –OH is bonded immediately before the
parent alcohol name.
Name each alkyl branch chain (or other group) and
designate its position by number.
This is the longest continuous chain that
contains an hydroxy group.
Select this chain as the parent compound.
4
3
2
1
This end of the chain is closest to the
OH. Begin numbering here.
4
3
2
1
3-methyl-2-butanol
This is the longest continuous chain that contains
an hydroxy group.
Select this chain as the parent compound.
5
4
3
2
1
This end of the chain is closest to the
OH. Begin numbering here.
5
4
3
2
3-methyl-2-pentanol
1
EXAMPLE
CH3 OH
4
CH3
3
C
2
CH
1
CH2
Br
CH3
1) Longest carbon chain = 4 carbons
= root name: butanol
2) Position of –OH group = second carbon atom
= 2-butanol
3) Name of substituents = 1-bromo
= 3-methyl
= 3-methyl
COMPLETE IUPAC NAME = 1-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol
EXAMPLES OF POLYHYDROXY ALCOHOL
CH2 CH2
CH2 CH CH2
OH OH
OH OH OH
1,2-ethanediol
1,2,3-propanetriol
Ethers
• An ether has the formula ROR´.
• R and R´ can be the same or different
groups.
• R and R´ can be saturated, unsaturated
or aromatic.
• Saturated ethers have little chemical
reactivity but are often used as solvents.
• Alcohols and ethers are isomeric.
• They have the same molecular formula
but different structural formulas.
• An alcohol and its isomeric ether have
different
chemical
and
physical
properties.
C2H6O
C2H6O
CH3CH2OH
CH3–O–CH3
ethanol
B.P. 78.3oC
hydrogen bonds
soluble in water
dimethyl ether
B.P. –27.3oC
does not hydrogen bond
insoluble in water
Naming Ethers
Common Names
Common names of ethers are formed from
the names of the groups attached to the
carbon atom in alphabetical order followed
by the word ether.
CH3CH2CH2 — O — CH2CH3
propyl
ether
ethyl
ethyl propyl ether
IUPAC RULES


RO– is an alkoxy group.
Ethers are named as alkoxy derivatives of the
longest carbon-carbon chain in the molecule
IUPAC RULES
1.
2.
3.
Select the longest carbon-carbon chain and label
it with the name of the corresponding alkane.
Change the –yl ending of the other hydrocarbon
group to –oxy to obtain the alkoxy group name.
Combine the names from steps 1 and 2, giving the
alkoxy name first, to form the ether name.
This is the longest carbon-carbon chain.
Label it the
Change
withname
the name
of theofother
the corresponding
hydrocarbon
alkane.to –oxy.
group
CH3CH2CH2 — O — CH2CH3
propane
ethoxy
ethyl
IUPAC name: ethoxypropane
Trivial name: ethyl propyl ether
ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

Functional group: carbonyl group
C O


Aldehyde: one hydrogen atom is bonded to the carbon
in the carbonyl group.
Ketone: the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is
bonded to two hydrocarbon groups.
R
O
O
C
C
R'
ketone
R
H
aldehyde
R, R' = substituents
Naming Aldehydes
The IUPAC names of aldehydes are
obtained by dropping the –e and adding
-al to the name of the parent hydrocarbon.
butane
butanal
al
• The parent hydrocarbon is the longest
chain that carries the –CHO group.
• This chain has 4 carbon atoms.
3
2
1
4
• The parent hydrocarbon is the longest
chain that carries the –CHO group.
• This chain has 5 carbon atoms.
5
4
3
2
1
• The –CHO group is always at the beginning
of the carbon chain. The carbonyl carbon is
numbered as carbon 1.
5
4
3
2
1
3-methylpentanal
• The common names of aldehydes are derived
from the common names of the carboxylic acids.
• The –ic acid or –oic acid ending of the acid name is
dropped and is replaced with the suffix –aldehyde.
butyric acid
butyraldehyde
Naming Ketones
The IUPAC name of a ketone is derived from the
name of the alkane corresponding to the longest
carbon chain that contains the ketone-carbonyl
group.
• The parent name is formed by changing the –e
ending of the alkane to -one.

propane
propanone
one

If the carbon chain is longer than 4 carbons,
it’s numbered so that the carbonyl carbon has
the smallest number possible, and this number
is prefixed to the name of the ketone.
This end of the chain is closest to the C=O.
Begin numbering here.
1
2
3
4
3-hexanone
5
6
• The common names of ketones are derived by
naming the alkyl or aryl groups attached to the
carbonyl carbon followed by the word ketone.
ethyl
propyl
ethyl propyl ketone
ALKYL HALIDES

General formula: CnH2n+1X where n = 1,2,… and X
(halogen)

Functional group: halogen, -X (X = F, Cl, Br, I)

Naming alkyl halides:
- same as nomenclature of alkanes
5
CH3 I
iodomethane
4
3
CH3
CH3
2
1
CH3 CH2 CH CH CH3
CI
3-chloro-2-methylpentana
6
5
4
CH3 CH2 C
Br
CH3
3
2
1
CH2 CH CH3
4-bromo-2,4-dimethylhexane
AMINES
• Amines are organic compounds and functional groups
that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair
• Functional group:
• Classification of amines:
Primary amine
Secondary amine
Tertiary amine




Primary (1o) amine: one hydrogen of ammonia is
replaced by an alkyl or aryl group
Secondary (2o) amine: two hydrogens of ammonia
is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group
Tertiary (3o) amine: three hydrogens of ammonia is
replaced by an alkyl or aryl group
Quaternary (4o) amine: an ion in which nitrogen is
bonded to four alkyl or aryl groups and bears a
positive charge
CH3
H3C N CH3
CH3
NAMING AMINES

Common names:
- formed from the names of the alkyl groups bonded to
nitrogen, followed by the suffix –amine.
- the prefixes di-, tri-, and tetra- are used to decribe two, three
or four identical substituents.
CH3 CH2 NH2
ethylamine
CH3
N
CH3
cyclohexyldimethylamine
CH3 CH2
CH3
N
CH3
ethyldimethylamine
+-
(CH3CH2CH2CH2)4N CI
tetrabutylammonium chloride
NAMING AMINES

IUPAC names:
- similar to that alcohols.
- the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms determine the root
name.
- the –e in alkane name is changed to –amine, and a number shows
the position of the amino group along the chain.
- other substituents on the carbon chain are given numbers, and the
prefix N- is used for each substituent on nitrogen.
CH3 CH2
3
4
NH2
CH CH3
1
2
2-butanamine
NHCH3
CH3 CH2 CH CH3
4
3
2
1
N-methyl-2-butanamine
CH3
NH2
CH3 CH CH2 CH2
4
3
2
1
3-methyl-1-butanamine
CH3
CH3
CH3 CH2 CH CH CH CH3
N CH3
CH3
2,4, N, N-tetramethyl-3-hexanamine
CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

Functional group: carboxyl group, -COOH
O
C OH
• The carboxyl group can also be written as
or
• Open-chain carboxylic acids form a
homologous series.
• The carbonyl group (
) is always at the
beginning of a carbon chain.
• The carbonyl carbon atom is always designated
as C-1.
3
2
1

The IUPAC name of a carboxylic acid is
derived from the name of the alkane
corresponding to the longest carbon chain that
contains the carboxyl group.
• The parent name is formed by changing the –e
ending of the alkane to –oic acid.
methane
methanone
oic acid
Examples of carboxylic acid
O
3
2
1
CH3 CH C OH
Br
2-bromopropanoic acid
4
3
CH3 CH
O
2
1
CH C OH
CH3 CH3
2,3-dimethylbutanoic acid


Organic acids are usually known by
common names.
These names usually refer to a natural
source of the acid.
ethanoic
acetic acid
acid
common
IUPAC name
methanoic
formic acid
acid
common
IUPAC name
CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES
Group
Class of
replacing the
compound
–OH group of
RCOOH
-X (halogen)
Acyl halide
-OR’
Ester
-NH2
Amide
General
formula
O
O
R C X
O
R C OR'
O
R C NH2
O
O C R'
Acid anhydride
O
Example
O
R C O C R'
H3C C CI
ethanoyl chloride
O
H3C C OC2H5
ethyl ethanoate
O
H3C C NH2
ethanamide
O
O
H3C C O C CH3
ethanoic anhydride
Esters
An ester is an organic compound derived from a
carboxylic acid and an alcohol.
carbonyl group
OR´ bonded to
a carbonyl
carbon.
The ester functional group is –COOR.
Esterification is the reaction of an acid
and an alcohol to form an ester.
acetic acid
(ethanoic acid)
ethyl alcohol
(ethanol)
ethyl acetate
(ethyl ethanoate)
IUPAC NAME

According to the IUPAC system the alcohol
part of the ester (R΄) is named first.
ethyl
IUPAC NAME
• This is followed by the name of the acid
where the –ic ending of the acid has been
changed to –ate.
ethanoate
IUPAC NAME

According to the IUPAC system the alcohol
part of the ester (R΄) is named first.

This is followed by the name of the acid where
the –ic ending of the acid has been changed to
–ate.
ethyl ethanoate
COMMON NAME
• The alcohol part is named first (derived from the
common names of alcohol).
• The common names of esters are derived by adding
–ate to the name of the acid.
acetic acid → acetate
ethyl
COMMON NAME
• The alcohol part is named first (derived from the
common names of alcohol).
• The common names of esters are derived by adding
–ate to the name of the acid.
ethyl acetate
Amide


Amide: a composite of a carboxylic acid and
ammonia or an amine.
Classification of amide:
i) primary amide: RCONH2 (two H atoms
bonded to N atom)
ii) secondary amide: RCONHR’ (one H atoms
bonded to N atom)
iii) tertiary amide: RCONR’R” (no H atoms
bonded to N atom)
NAMING AMIDE

IUPAC name:
i) primary amide
- first name the corresponding acid. Drop the –ic acid or
oic acid, and add the suffix –amide.
O
CH3 C OH
IUPAC name ethanoic acid
Common name acetic acid
O
NH3
ammonia
CH3 C NH2
ethanamide
acetamide
NAMING AMIDE

IUPAC name:
i) secondary and tertiary amide
- treat the alkyl groups on nitrogen as substituents,
and specify their position by the prefix N-.
O
CH3 C N CH2CH3
H
O
CH3
CH3 C N CH2CH3
IUPAC Name
N-ethylethanamide
N-ethyl-N-methylethanamide
Common name
N-ethylacetamide
N-ethyl-N-methylacetamide
Acyl halide / acid halides
O
R C X

Naming acid halides:
- replacing the –ic acid suffix of the acid name
with –yl and the halide name.
O
CH3 C F
O
CH3CH2 C CI
IUPAC Name
ethanoyl fluoride
propanoyl chloride
Common name
acetyl flouride
propionyl chloride
Acid anhydride

Naming acid anhydride:
- the word acid is changed to anhydride in both the
common and the IUPAC name
O
O
CH3 C O C CH3
IUPAC Name
ethanoic anhydride
Common name
acetic anhydride
O
O
CH3 C O C H
ethanoic methanoic anhydride
acetic formic anhydride
FUNCTIONAL
GROUPS OF
ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS
POLYMERS
• A polymer is a high molar mass molecular
compound made up of many repeating chemical
units.
Naturally occurring polymers
Synthetic polymers
•Proteins
•Nylon
•Nucleic acids
•Dacron
•Cellulose
•Lucite
•Rubber
• The simple repeating unit of a polymer is the
monomer.
• Homopolymer is a polymer made up of only one type
of monomer
( CF2
CF2 )n
Teflon
( CH2
CH2 )n
Polyethylene
( CH2
CH )n
Cl
PVC
• Copolymer is a polymer made up of two or
more monomers
( CH
CH2
CH2
CH
CH
Styrene-butadiene rubber
CH2 )n
Formation of Polyethylene
polyethylene
ethylene monomer
nCH2=CH2 →
CH2 CH2[CH2 CH2]n CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3
• n = the number of monomer units.
• n ranges from 2,500 to 25,000
SOME
MONOMERS
AND THEIR
COMMON
SYNTHETIC
POLYMERS
USES AND IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS
NYLON
• Nylons are condensation copolymers formed by reacting
equal parts of a diamine and a dicarboxylic acids, so that
peptide bonds form at both ends of each monomer in a
process analogous to polypeptides biopolymers.
• General reactions:
Dicarboxylic acids
Diamines
Nylon
Basic concepts of nylon production
• The first approach:
- combining molecules with an acid (COOH) group on each
end are reacted with two chemicals that contain amine (NH2)
groups on each end.
- Form nylon 6,6, made of hexamethylene diamine with six
carbon atoms and acidipic acid, as well as six carbon atoms.
• The second approach:
- a compound has an acid at one end and an amine at the
other and is polymerized to form a chain with repeating units
of (-NH-[CH2]n-CO-)x.
- Form nylon 6, made from a single six-carbon substance
called caprolactam.
Uses and important of nylon

Apparel: Blouses, dresses, foundation garments, hosiery,
lingerie, raincoats, ski apparel, windbreakers, swimwear, and
cycle wear

Home Furnishings: Bedspreads, carpets, curtains, upholstery

Industrial and Other Uses: Tire cord, hoses, conveyer and seat
belts, parachutes, racket strings, ropes and nets, sleeping
bags, tarpaulins, tents, thread, monofilament fishing line,
dental floss
AZO-DYES
• Azo compounds:
- compounds bearing the functional group R-N=N-R',
in which R and R' can be either aryl or alkyl.
- N=N group is called an azo group
- HNNH is called diimide
• Aryl azo compounds have vivid colors, especially
reds, oranges, and yellows
Yellow azo dye
Uses and important of azo dye



Methyl orange - used as acid-base indicators
due to the different colors of their acid and salt
forms
Artist’s paints – clays, yellow to red range
Dye in food and textiles
E102: Tartrazine
E107 : Yellow 2G
EXAMPLES OF
AZO DYES USED
IN FOOD
E110 : Sunset Yellow
E122 : Azorubine
E123 : Amaranth
E124 : Ponceau 4R
E129 : Allura Red
E151 : Brilliant Black
FUEL





Any material that is burned or altered to obtain energy and
to heat or to move an object
Its energy can be stored to be released only when needed,
and that the release is controlled in such a way that the
energy can be harnessed to produce work
Examples: Methane, petrol and oil.
Application of energy released from fuels:
- cooking
- powering weapons to combustion
- generation of electricity
Fuel oil: generate heat or used in an engine for the
generation of power