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AWR Studio
Presented by:
Andrew Daryl Gungadoo
AWR Program Distribution
Stockholm - Feb 21-22,
Topics (Day One – 2
• Radio Ministry - An Introduction (10 minutes)
• Hardware Components in a Studio/FM Station:
– Mic/Recorded media/Mixer/Transmitter) (20 minutes)
Mic Theory & Techniques (10 minutes)
Analog Recording Media (5 Minutes)
Digital Recording Media (15 Minutes)
Audio Cables in a Studio (5 Minutes)
An Introduction to Computer Recording Platform &
file Compression (25 Minutes)
• Basic Mixer Principles (10 Minutes)
• An Introduction to local FM/AM Tx (10 Minutes)
• An Introduction to distribution via Satellite for the
European Market (5 Minutes)
Topics (Day Two Morning)
• Review of yesterdays points (Mic/Recorded
media/Mixer/Transmitter) (10 Minutes)
• Digital Editing - Adobe Audition with practice (2 hours)
– Adobe Audition (the basics: Computer Requirements)
– Adobe Audition (the basics: Installation, Opening)
– Adobe Audition (the basics: Preparation for recording - Adjusting the
– Adobe Audition (the basics: Playing Audio)
– Adobe Audition (the basics: Saving Audio - no Compression)
– Adobe Audition (editing: Editing Basics - Cut/Paste)
– Adobe Audition (editing: Editing Basics - Fades & simple effects)
– Adobe Audition (editing: Punch Edit)
– Adobe Audition (Multitrack: an Introduction)
– Adobe Audition (Multitrack: brief example of music recording)
Topics (Day Two) Afternoon
• Review of this morning's points (Adobe Audition) (10 Minutes)
• practice on Adobe Audition (1 hour)
– Concrete exercises
File compression techniques (MPEG) (10 minutes)
Audio over the Internet (FTP & Web Publication) (20 Minutes)
Content creation (10 minutes)
Wrapping it up...
Mat 28:19
• Gån fördenskull ut och gören alla folk till
lärjungar, (…)
• Therefore go, and make disciples of all
nations, (…)
Types of Missionaries:
• Noah (Gen 6)
• Abraham (Gen 12)
• Queen of Sheba (2 Chr 9)
• Maid of Naaman (2 Ki 5)
• Daniel, Joseph
Hardware Components in a
Studio / FM Station
Audio Processing & Transmitter
Acoustic Theory & Techniques
Inverse Square Law
– dB Δ = 20x Log (length old / length new)
– or 6dB per doubling of the distance
Atmospheric Attenuation (dependent on humidity, Tº, Air Pressure & Frequency)
Critical Distance (Dc) & mic placement
– Direct speech / reflected speech
Sensitivity (dB SPL)
– Sound Pressure Level
Reverb & Positioning (see
Meters (dB, dBu, Vrms, etc…)
Mic Pickup Patterns (also referred as Polar patterns)
– Unidirectional (Cardioid, Supercardiod, Hypercardioid, Shotgun) (50% Dc)
– Bidirectional (Figure of eight or cosine)
– Omni-Directional (& Half-Omni or Hemispherical) (30% Dc)
Power Mics
– Phantom Power: (9-52v DC) powers the condenser pre-amp of mic
– Bias: DC Voltage (1.5-9v DC) powers JFET Transistor on electret condenser mic
– Improve the naturalness / intelligibility of sound
– Improve the overall output level (by reducing feedback frequency)
– But it cannot eliminate distortion
Inverse Square Law
Metering an Audio Signal
dBu Decibels referred to the voltage equivalent of 0 dBm into a 600Ω load. 0 dBu = 0.775V = 2.2 dBV
dBV Decibels referred to 1 Volt. dBm Decibels refered to 1 miliwatt
Reverb, Feedback & Interference
Positioning (Small Room)
Positioning (Large Room)
Lecturn Mic
Microphone Pickup Patterns
Microphone Construction
Analog Recording Media
Digital Recording Media
•Sound quality
At a good recording resolution (48KHz) digital offers far better signal-to-noise ratio
than most tape recorders & are free of tape problems such as tape hiss, modulation
noise, print-through, noise reduction pumping, and wow/flutter.
Tape recorders make it necessary to rewind and to fast forward in order to find specific
parts of a song. Most digital recorders use random access which allows you to cue to
any location instantaneously.
Digital recorders also allow you to edit with greater accuracy and ease than ever. Most
digital recorders allow you to perform non-destructive editing.
Time compression/expansion is another editing technique available on most digital
recorders. A song’s tempo can be increased or decreased without affecting pitch.
Copying the music many times doesn’t deteriorate the quality of the original source.
Archives (on the proper media and in the right climatic conditions) can last over 100
years !
•Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
Digital signal processors can add ambience effects (such as reverberation and echo),
equalization (tone controls), and other special effects to enhance the original recorded
Digital Recording Media
Digital Recording Media
Analog Wave to Digital data
Digital Recording Media
Digital Sample Rate & Bit Rate
CD-Audio: 44.100 KHz Sample Frequency, 16 Bit Resolution, Stereo [74min / 650 Megs]
The Shannon theorem says that, in order to digitalize an analog
signal with full quality, the sample rate must be at least twice the
highest frequency, or C = B * log2(1+ S/N) where C is the achievable
channel capacity, B is the bandwidth of the line, S is the average signal power and N is
the average noise power.
Sample BIT Resolution
8 bit -> 16 bit -> 32 bit
 x2 Data
 x4 Data
DVD-Audio: 96 KHz Sample Frequency, 32 Bit Resolution, Dolby Digital (5.1) [2hrs / 9 Gigs]
x4 Data
 x2 Data
Sample rate (FREQUENCY) Resolution 22KHz, 32 KHz, 44.1 KHz, 96 KHz
Digital Recording Media
Digital Audio Flexibility
Digital Recording Media
Compact Disc & DVD Media
Audio Cabling
Intro to Computer Recording
System Hardware Requirements
400MHz processor (1.5 GHz or faster, recommended)
Microsoft® Windows® 98 Second Edition, Windows Millennium,
Windows 2000, or Windows XP Professional (DirectX 8.0)
128MB of RAM (512MB or more recommended)
Large Hard Drive(s) 7200 rpm or higher speed (40+ Gig recommended)
1024x768 color display (1280x1024 LCD recommended)
Stereo sound card (multitrack sound card recommended for music production)
CD-ROM drive (CD-RWor DVD-R recommended)
Speakers or Headphones recommended
Mixer (Optional)
Intro to Computer Recording
Audio Path
Intro to Computer Recording
Audio Path (to/from Sound Card)
Digital Out
Line In
Mic In
Line In
Intro to Computer Recording
Audio Setup on PC
Make sure that wave is
NOT muted, and that its
volume slider and the
master volume slider are
both at least halfway up.
Set the sound card's
recording devices by
choosing Options >
Properties, selecting
Recording, and clicking
OK. Each of the devices
your sound card can record
from will be listed here.
Make sure that your Line In
(or Mic in) is selected & not
muted, and its volume
slider is at least halfway
Intro to Computer Recording
Audio Setup on PC
Start Adobe Audition
and then go to Options,
select Settings, and
then click on the
Devices tab. Make sure
that your sound card is
selected for both
Waveform Playback
and Waveform Record.
Intro to Computer Recording
Audio Setup on PC
Test your recording levels with
Cool Edit's VU meters. Doubleclick on the VU meters to turn
them on, and then say something
in your mic. Use the Windows
recording control panel to adjust
the levels until the VU meters
peak out around -2 or -3 dB.
Double-click on the VU meters to
turn them off. To Record press the
Red REC button.
File Compression
CD-Audio: 44.100 KHz Sample Frequency, 16 Bit Resolution, Stereo [74min / 650 Megs]
1 min of Audio ~
10 Megabytes
MPEG compression
is based on
Perceptual Coding
(Psychoacoustics) ,
Masking & dynamic
bit allocation
File Compression
Using dBpowerAMP to encode in MP3
The process of converting files from one
format to another is called transcoding,
After installing
generally speaking
it is not adMC
idea to
is shown:
from lossy to page
lossy format
wma, ogg are lossy formats) as quality is
lost during each conversion. Having said
that, if there is a good reason to convert
such as the audio format is not supported
in a player, or you wish to use a lower bit
rate (creating a smaller file, of a lower
audio quality) then by all means transcode,
if you have the option though re-rip from
the original CD. One last point, if a
128Kbps mp3 file is converted to a
192Kbps mp3, the 192Kbps file is not of
any higher quality - once quality is lost, it is
gone forever.
File Compression
Ripping an Audio CD in MP3
The process of taking audio from an Audio CD is called Ripping, dMC contains a
fully featured CD ripper, to start it select: Start >> Programs >> dBpowerAMP
Music Converter and run dMC Audio CD Input:
Intro to the Mixer
Your Mixer !
Audio Automation Systems
Processing & Transmitter
Audio Switcher &
Automation System
AWR Licensed Software
• (
Login: software
Password: awr7ware
• Please send an e-mail to [email protected] to
inform of the usage of software
– Full Name
– E-mail
– Church
Intro to Radio Broadcasting
ShortWave Broadcasting