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Transcript
Audio Production
Basics
Pros and Cons of Digital Recording

Pros –





Much easier for the average person.
Much less cumbersome
Will not deteriorate over time
Easily manipulated.
Cons –



Technology and software changes rapidly.
Question over the quality and longevity of the computer
audio recordings.
Turn tables, tape machines, and other hardware devices
are still being used. Software trying to duplicate the
warm natural sounds of the original devices.
Audio File Formats
audio file types
 Most common

 .WAV



.AIF
.MP3
.MID (MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
.WAV

Standard digital audio file format used for
storing waveform data; allows audio recordings
to be saved with different sampling rates
and bitrates; often saved in a 44.1 KHz, 16-bit,
stereo format,

standard format used for CD audio.
MP3


Compressed audio format; uses "Layer 3"
audio compression; commonly used to store
music files and audiobooks on a hard drive;
may provide near-CD quality sound (stereo, 16bit) in a file roughly 1/10 the size of
a .WAV or .AIF file.
The quality of an MP3 file depends largely on
the bit rate used for compression. Common bit
rates are 128, 160, 192, and 256 kbps. Higher
bit rates result in higher quality files that also
require more disk space.
AIF


Audio file created using the Audio Interchange
File Format (AIFF); contains uncompressed
CD-quality audio, similar to a .WAV file;
commonly used to store standard CD audio.
Apple Computer developed the AIFF format,
basing it on Electronic Arts' .IFF format.
Standard AIFF files use a sampling rate of
44.1KHz, are 16-bit, and have two channels for
stereo sound.
MIDI

file used by music authoring and mixing
programs as well as MIDI hardware devices;



contains music data, such as what notes are
played, when they are played, how long each
note is held, and how loud each note is played.
A MID file can be used to change instruments
on a MIDI hardware device or modify sustain
pedal information.
MID files can be played back using software
instruments that interpret this data.
Audio recording
Audio Waves
Audio is recorded into waves.
 They can be edited and manipulated
to add numerous effects

Digital Recording tools
Mics,
 Mixer boards
 Interfaces
 DAT

Mixers

Recording mixer setup.

Digital Mixer with Firewire
– top of the line

Digital USB mixer
Mixer Walkthrough
Gain
 Sliders
 Levels
 Phantom
 DI boxes – what are they used for?


Performs level matching, and balancing, to
minimize noise, distortion, and ground loops.
Microphones
Microphones can be extremely fragile
 Do not blow or tap into them
 Do not drop them or throw them
around

Dynamic Microphones



Contains a mylar diaphragm attached to a small
coil surrounding a tiny fixed magnet.
When sound wave strikes, the diaphragm
vibrates.
A tiny voltage is generated based on the
interaction between the magnet and coil.
Condenser Mic

Very sensitive mic




two plates with voltage between them are used to
create sound.
Require phantom power or on board power.
Not the best choice for recording louder instruments
or amplified instruments,
Large Diaphragm and small diaphragm.
 Large – vocals
 Small - instruments
Microphone Pickup Patterns
General Mic Tips

Get your microphone as close to the
source as possible.
• Even directional microphones pick up a little
sound from most directions, so the closer the
better - as long as you're not getting negative
effects (plosives, mouth noises, etc)
General Mic Tips

Eliminate the Competition: Think about the
OTHER sounds in the room where you are
recording. Two main sources of unwanted
sound are:


noise : this can be the noisy air conditioner,
computer fan traffic outside, crowds in the hall.
ambience : may be the "live nature" of the room
you're in, the unwanted echo.
Windscreens and Pop filters


Foam ball-shaped
accessory for the
microphone
Used to reduce
unwanted sounds
Interface
Purpose is to send the signal into a
computer to be processed and
manipulated.
 Best to use USB or Firewire to bypass
soundcard.

Steps to the recording process
1.
2.
3.
Tracking
Mixing/editing
Mastering
Let’s explore the software!
toolbars
 Settings
 Starting a new project (creating a new
folder for each project)
 Effects
 Capture room sounds.

Simple assignment





/15
Use Audacity or Audition (COPY THE FINAL VERSION
ONTO YOUR U DRIVE!)
Import a piece of public domain instrumental audio into
one track of a project file.
Copy it into a second track. Alter the second track’s
volume and properties (add effects, fades,…)
Take part of track 2 and cut it from track 2 and place it in
the precise position of track 3.
Save it as audio assignment 1.
 Marks
• Piece successfully imported 3 points
• Track copied into a second track 3 points
• Part of track 2 cut from the track and placed in the
proper spot in track 3 4 points
• Alterations to Properties of track 5 points