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As our project name suggest it is based on energy saving. With the
use of my project our home appliances run & control with
microcontroller based system.
We here put our idea that lights run on “INFRARED
Intelligent Energy Saving System can be used in
places like where lighting is very important.
The libraries will be well illuminated with many lamps.
When people are not present at a reading place the lighting
can be made OFF and when they are present, the lighting
made ON. All these can be done through by Dimming
circuit and PIR sensor.
If a person entering to the monitored area, the PIR
sensors activates and sense the person, gives to the micro
controller. The Infrared energy emitted from the living
body is focused by a Fresnel lens segment. Then only the
PIR sensor activates. After sensing the person LDR
checks the light intensity of the monitored area, whether it
is bright or dark. Depending on the LDR output, the lamp
may be ON / OFF by using Dimmer circuit.
PIC 16F72
Printed Circuit Board
Micro controller  PIC 8051
5V, 12V Dc Power supply
IR sensor  Passive Infrared Sensor
LDR  Light Dependent Resistor
LCD  Optrax, 2 line by 16 characters
Zero Crossing Detector
OPTOCOUPLER: Optocoupler is a device that uses a short optical
transmission path to transfer a signal between elements of
a circuit, typically a transmitter and a receiver, while
keeping them electrically isolated. A common
implementation involves a LED and a phototransistor,
separated so that light may travel across a barrier but
electrical current may not.
DIMMER: Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a
light. By decreasing or increasing the RMS voltage and
hence the mean power to the lamp it is possible to vary the
intensity of the light output. Although variable-voltage
devices are used for various purposes, the term dimmer is
generally reserved for those intended to control lighting.
A PIR detector is a motion detector that senses the
heat emitted by a living body. These are often fitted to
security lights so that they will switch on
automatically if approached. They are very effective
in enhancing home security systems.
The sensor is passive because, instead of emitting a
beam of light or microwave energy that must be
interrupted by a passing person in order to “sense”
that person, the PIR is simply sensitive to the
infrared energy emitted by every living thing. When
an intruder walks into the detector’s field of vision,
the detector “sees” a sharp increase in infrared
Zero crossing detectors as a group are not a wellunderstood application, although they are essential
elements in a wide range of products. It has probably
escaped the notice of readers who have looked at the
lighting controller and the Linkwitz Cosine Burst
Generator, but both of these rely on a zero crossing detector
for their operation.
A zero crossing detector literally detects the
transition of a signal waveform from positive and negative,
ideally providing a narrow pulse that coincides exactly with
the zero voltage condition. At first glance, this would
appear to be an easy enough task, but in fact it is quite
complex, especially where high frequencies are involved. In
this instance, even 1 kHz starts to present a real challenge
if extreme accuracy is needed.
LDR’s or Light Dependent Resistors are very
useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits.
These help in automatically switching ON /OFF
the street lights and etc., normally the resistance
of an LDR is very high, sometimes as very high
as 1000000 ohms, but when they are illuminated
with light, resistance drop dramatically.
Electronic opto sensors are the devices that alter
their electrical characteristics, in the presence of
visible or invisible light. The best-known devices
of these types are the light dependent resistor
(LDR), the photo diode and the phototransistors
LCD DISPLAY:A liquid crystal is a material (normally organic
for LCD’s) that will flow like a liquid but whose
molecular structure has some properties
normally associated with solids. The Liquid
Crystal Display (LCD) is a low power device. The
power requirement is typically in the order of
microwatts for the LCD. However, an LCD
requires an external or internal light source. We
are making use of LCD in our project to display
the PIR mode and room temperature.
About the 8051
 The Intel 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which
means that most available operations are limited
to 8 bits. There are 3 basic "sizes" of the 8051:
Short, Standard, and Extended. The Short and
Standard chips are often available in DIP (dual
in-line package) form, but the Extended 8051
models often have a different form factor, and are
not "drop-in compatible". All these things are
called 8051 because they can all be programmed
using 8051 assembly language, and they all
share certain features (although the different
models all have their own special features).
FEATURES OF 8051:Some of the features that have made the 8051
popular are:
 4 KB on chip program memory.
 128 bytes on chip data memory(RAM).
 4 reg banks.
 128 user defined software flags.
 8-bit data bus
 16-bit address bus
 32 general purpose registers each of 8 bits
 16 bit timers (usually 2, but may have m
3 internal and 2 external interrupts.
 Bit as well as byte addressable RAM area of 16
 Four 8-bit ports, (short models have two 8-bit
 16-bit program counter and data pointer.
 1 Microsecond instruction cycle with 12 MHz
 8051 models may also have a number of special,
model-specific features, such as UARTs, ADC,
OpAmps, etc...
8051 chips are used in a wide variety of control
systems, telecom applications, robotics as well as
in the automotive industry. By some estimations,
8051 family chips make up over 50% of the
embedded chip market.
BASIC PINS:PIN 9: PIN 9 is the reset pin which is used reset
the microcontroller’s internal registers and ports
upon starting up. (Pin should be held high for 2
machine cycles.)
 PINS 18 & 19: The 8051 has a built-in oscillator
amplifier hence we need to only connect a crystal
at these pins to provide clock pulses to the
 PIN 40 and 20: Pins 40 and 20 are VCC and
ground respectively. The 8051 chip needs +5V
500mA to function properly, although there are
lower powered versions like the Atmel 2051
which is a scaled down version of the 8051 which
runs on +3V.
PINS 29, 30 & 31: As described in the features of the
8051, this chip contains a built-in flash memory. In
order to program this we need to supply a voltage of
+12V at pin 31. If external memory is connected then
PIN 31, also called EA/VPP, should be connected to
ground to indicate the presence of external memory.
PIN 30 is called ALE (address latch enable), which is
used when multiple memory chips are connected to
the controller and only one of them needs to be
selected.We will deal with this in depth in the later
chapters. PIN 29 is called PSEN. This is "program
store enable". In order to use the external memory it
is required to provide the low voltage (0) on both
PSEN and EA pins.
PORTS:PORT P1 (Pins 1 to 8): The port P1 is a general
purpose input/output port which can be used for
a variety of interfacing tasks. The other ports P0,
P2 and P3 have dual roles or additional functions
associated with them based upon the context of
their usage.
 PORT P3 (Pins 10 to 17): PORT P3 acts as a
normal IO port, but Port P3 has additional
functions such as, serial transmit and receive
pins, 2 external interrupt pins, 2 external counter
inputs, read and write pins for memory access.
PORT P2 (pins 21 to 28): PORT P2 can also be
used as a general purpose 8 bit port no external
memory is present, but if external memory access
is required then PORT P2 will act as an address
bus in conjunction with PORT P0 to access
external memory. PORT P2 acts as A8-A15, as
can be seen from fig 1.1
 PORT P0 (pins 32 to 39) PORT P0 can be used
as a general purpose 8 bit port when no external
memory is present, but if external memory access
is required then PORT P0 acts as a multiplexed
address and data bus that can be used to access
external memory in conjunction with PORT P2.
P0 acts as AD0-AD7.
The 8051 requires the existence of an external
oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuit usually
runs around 12MHz, although the 8051
(depending on which specific model) is capable of
running at a maximum of 40MHz. Each machine
cycle in the 8051 is 12 clock cycles, giving an
effective cycle rate at 1MHz (for a 12MHz clock)
to 3.33MHz (for the maximum 40MHz clock). The
oscillator circuit that generates the clock pulses
so that all internal operations are synchronized.
DATA AND PROGRAM MEMORY:The 8051 Microcontroller can be programmed in
PL/M, 8051 Assembly, C and a number of other
high-level languages. Many compilers even have
support for compiling C++ for an 8051.
 Program memory in the 8051 is read-only, while
the data memory is considered to be read/write
accessible. When stored on EEPROM or Flash,
the program memory can be rewritten when the
microcontroller is in the special programmer
The Special Function Register (SFR) is the
upper area of addressable memory, from address
0x80 to 0xFF. A, B, PSW, DPTR are called
SFR.This area of memory cannot be used for data
or program storage, but is instead a series of
memory-mapped ports and registers. All port
input and output can therefore be performed by
memory mov operations on specified addresses
in the SFR. Also, different status registers are
mapped into the SFR, for use in checking the
status of the 8051, and changing some
operational parameters of the 8051.
The 8051 has 4 selectable banks of 8 addressable
8-bit registers, R0 to R7. This means that there
are essentially 32 available general purpose
registers, although only 8 (one bank) can be
directly accessed at a time. To access the other
banks, we need to change the current bank
number in the flag status register
The A register is located in the SFR memory
location 0xE0. The A register works in a similar
fashion to the AX register of x86 processors. The
A register is called the accumulator, and by
default it receives the result of all arithmetic
operations. The B register is used in a similar
manner, except that it can receive the extended
answers from the multiply and divide operations.
When not being used for multiplication and
Division, the B register is available as an extra
general-purpose register
MICROCONTROLLER:If a system is developed with a microprocessor,
the designer has to go for external memory such
as RAM, ROM or EPROM and peripherals and
hence the size of the PCB will be large enough to
hold all the required peripherals.
 But the microcontroller has got all these
peripheral facilities on a single chip so
development of a similar system with a
microcontroller reduces PCB size and cost of the
In our project we were gone through the research
work only. We do not implement the model. In
this days as the electricity is became costlier day
by day. So such system is really essential for
saving energy. We have not such morden concept
but we are going to implement the system and we
hope that our project is work in real world. We
wish that we will implement this system for more
than 2-3 equipments. We will try our best to
improve our project scope for house-hold as well
as commercial application.
The aim of our project is conversion of
human black body radiation` into the
electrical energy by the use of simple
principle of energy which is ENERGY
displacement law and stefan-boltzmann law
which gives the radiant intensity
Infrared thermography
Infrared thermography (IRT) is a modern,
non-invasive and safe technique of thermal profile
visualisation. Every object on the earth generates
heat radiation in the infrared part of the light
spectrum, the intensity and spectrum distribution of
which depend on the temperature of the mass and the
radiation properties of its surface layer. Using a
thermographic scanning equipment (a thermographic
camera) able to detect this type of radiation, even
minute changes in temperature can be accurately
monitored. The data obtained by scanning is
computer-processed, and shown in the form of
temperature maps that provide for a detailed
analysis of the temperature field.
An infrared camera measures and images the infrared
radiation emitted from an object. The fact that radiation
is a function of object surface temperature makes it
possible for the camera to calculate and display this
temperature. However, the radiation measured by the
camera does not only depend upon the temperature
of the object, but is also a function of its emissivity.
Radiation also originates from the surroundings and is
reflected by the object. The radiation from the object
and the reflected radiation will also be influenced
by the absorption of the atmosphere. To measure
temperature accurately, it is therefore necessary to
compensate for the effects of a number of the different
radiation sources. This is done on-line automatically by
the camera.
However the following object parameters must
be supplied for the camera: the emissivity of the object, the
reflected temperature, the distance between
the object and the camera and the relative humidity.
The thermographic method has found numerous
applications not only in industry (e.g. building, the
military and police, energetic) but also in human
and veterinary medicine (Yang & Yang, 1992; Denoix,
1994; Hilsberg et al., 1997; Harper, 2000; Markel &
Vainer, 2005). In living organisms, changes in vascular
circulation result in an increase or decrease in their tissue
temperature, which is then used to evaluate the
situation in that area (Harper, 2000).
For example, heat generated by inflammation is
transmitted to the overlying skin via increased
capillary blood flow, and is dissipated as infrared
energy. By using an infrared camera and a
specially developed analyzing software program,
this infrared energy can be measured (Embabyet
al., 2002). One major advantage of this method is
the fact that it does not require direct physical
contact with the surface monitored, thus allowing
remote reading of temperature distribution
(Speakman & Ward, 1998).
There are, however, certain limitations and
factors that need to be considered when using
IRT. Thermograms must be collected out of direct
sunlight and wind currents. The surface should
be free of dirt, moisture and foreign material. The
effect of weather conditions, circadian and
ultradian rhythms are also factors that need to
be considered and require further investigation
as part of validating IRT.
Intelligent Energy Saving System is not limited for
any particular application, it can be used any where
in a process industries with little modifications in
software coding according to the requirements. This
concept not only ensures that our work will be usable
in the future but also provides the flexibility to adapt
and extend, as needs change.
In this project work we have studied and
implemented a complete working model using a PIC
microcontroller. The programming and interfering of
PIC microcontroller has been mastered during the
implementation. This work includes the study of
energy saving system in many applications
We except that our next generation will develop this
energy saving system with wire less network.
In our project we connected all the sensors to micro
controller with the wires. This can be developed with
wire less such that we can place different sensors in
different places. This sensor will activate the micro
controller with the signals instead of using wires.
This system can also be applicable to various loads
like pressure, force and etc. by increasing the number
of ports of the micro controller.