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Transcript
ETHICAL LEADERSHIP
AND VALUES
DATE: January 2008
PLACE: Lima, Peru
BY
JAIME CHAHIN, PH.D.
WHAT IS ETHICAL LEADERSHIP?
AS LEADERSHIP HAS BECOME A MORE
POPULAR SUBJECT, IMPORTANT NUANCES
HAVE EMERGED THAT HELP DISTINGUISH
BETWEEN DIFFERING TYPES OF LEADERSHIP.
THREE TYPES:

TRANSACTIONAL
AS THE WORD IMPLIES, IS CONCERNED
WITH “TRANSACTIONS” –
THE BUSINESS OF DAILY LIFE.
THREE TYPES:

TRANSFORMATIONAL
CHANGING THE STATUS QUO FOR THE
COMMON GOOD.
THREE TYPES

TRANSFORMING
SEEKS TO RAISE THE BEHAVIOR OF
INDIVIDUALS AND INSTITUTIONS TO
HIGHER LEVELS OF MOTIVATION AND
MORALITY.
TRANFORMATIONAL

PURPOSE
PROMOTE JUSTICE, EQUALITY, FAIR
TREATMENT, ETC.

GOAL:
SPEAK THE TRUTH IN LOVE TO THOSE
IN POWER.
TRANSFORMING

PURPOSE:
PROMOTE A CHANGE OF HEART.

GOAL:
ARTICULATE TRUTH THAT UNIFIES.
ETHICAL LEADERSHIP
IS A COMBINED COMMITMENT TO
THE PRINCIPLES AND INTENTIONS
OF TRANSFORMATIONAL AND
TRANSFORMING LEADERSHIP.
ETHICAL LEADERSHIP
ALWAYS DIRECTS PEOPLE AND
COMMUNITIES TOWARD THE COMMON
GOOD, I.E., TOWARD JUSTICE.
TELEOLOGY
FROM THE GREEK, TELOS, IS DEFINED AS BEING
CONCERNED WITH ENDS. THE GOAL OF TELEOLOGY
IS TO MOVE US TOWARDS THE GOOD, THROUGH
THE PRACTICE OF GOOD HABITS. (MAGILL, 1990)
FOR ARISTOTLE,

THE GOOD WAS THE ULTIMATE END TOWARDS
WHICH INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY
SHOULD STRIVE.

THE PRACTICE OF GOOD HABITS LEADS TO
PRACTICAL REASON.
PRACTICAL REASON
ASSSERTS THAT A CRAFTSMAN KNOWS
THE GOOD THROUGH EXPERIENCE AND
A RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CRAFT.
ETHICAL LEADERS
WILL COME TO KNOW ETHICAL
LEADERSHIP THROUGH THE PRACTICE
OF PURSUING THE COMMON GOOD.
ETHICAL LEADERSHIP
IS, AMONG OTHER THINGS, AN INTEGRATION
OF LEADERSHIP AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT
THEORY. (REST, 1979)
MORAL SENSITIVITY
IS THE CAPACITY TO RECOGNIZE THAT
ONE HAS ENCOUNTERED A MORAL
DILEMMA.
MORAL REASONING
OCCURS AFTER WE HAVE BECOME
MORALLY SENSITIVE.
MORAL CHOOSING
IS CONCERNED WITH THE QUESTION,
AMONG MY MANY CHOICES WHICH ONE
WILL I CHOOSE AND WHY?
MORAL ACTION
IS THE LAST STEP, AND IT IS DISTINCT
FROM THE OTHER THREE. THE FIRST
THREE STEPS COULD BE ENCOUNTERED
ENTIRELY ON AN INTELLECTUAL LEVEL.
MORAL ACTION, HOWEVER, REQUIRES US TO
DO SOMETHING!
IN ORDER TO LINK OUR CAPACITY FOR
MORAL REASONING WITH THE WILL TO
ENGAGE IN MORAL ACTION, WE ALSO
NEED A BRIDGE. THAT BRIDGE IS
MORAL COURAGE.
BILL GRACE (1990) INTRODUCED THE
“4V” MODEL OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP
VALUES, VISION, VOICE AND VIRTUE
VALUES
VIRTUE
VOICE
POLIS
VISION
VALUES
IS AT THE TOP OF THE TRIANGLE, WHICH
REPRESENTS THE STARTING PLACE FOR
LEARNING ABOUT ETHICAL LEADERSHIP.
VALUES
SERVICE
VISION
VISION
POLIS
VOICE
WHEN WE TAKE PUBLIC ACTION,
WE GO FROM SERVICE TO “POLIS.”
VOICE
RENEWAL
VALUES

VIRTUE LIES AT THE CENTER AND STANDS
FOR THE COMMON GOOD.

CORE VALUES EXERCISE (30 MINUTES)
CORE VALUES EXERCISE

PEACE
WISDOM
STATUS
FAMILY
FAME
WEALTH
POWER
AUTHENCITY
JOY

SUCCESS
INTEGRITY
LOVE
FRIENDSHIP
JUSTICE
INFLUENCE
HAPPINESS
TRUTH
IT TAKES COURAGE TO STAND UP FOR
WHAT WE BELIEVE.
THE MAIN REWARD IN LIVING IN THE
CONTEXT OF OUR CORE VALUES IS
INTEGRITY.
INTEGRITY REFERS TO WHOLENESS.
VALUES
ARE THE KEY TO ETHICAL LEADERSHIP,
BY PROFESSING OUR VALUES, EVEN IF
WE DO NOT ACT ON THEM CONSISTENTLY,
WE BEGIN TO INTEGRATE OUR VALUES
INTO OUR LIVES AND CHOICES.
SERVICE
IS A MUTUALLY TRANSFORMATIVE
ENCOUNTER THAT PREPARES OUR HEARTS
FOR ETHICAL LEADERSHIP BY NURTURING
WITHIN US THE VIRTUES OF:







GENEROSITY
COMPASSION
WISDOM
COURAGE
VISION
HOPE
LEADERSHIP
GENEROSITY
IS ONE OF THE FIRST FRUITS OF
SERVICE LEARNING.
COMPASSION
IS THE ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS TO
“SUFFER WITH” ANOTHER.
WISDOM
FOLLOWS GENEROSITY AND COMPASSION
AS WE REFLECT ON OUR SERVICE
EXPERIENCE.
SELF, THE OTHER, COMMUNITY
COURAGE
WHEN WE SPEAK ON BEHALF OF WHAT
OUGHT TO BE AND ENGAGE IN THE
ACT OF CREATING A VISION OF WHAT
COULD BE.
VISION
IS THE GIFT THAT COMES FROM
SERVING THE WORLD IN THE CONTEXT
OF OUR CORE VALUES.
HOPE
IS THE BELIEF THAT OUR EFFORTS
RELATIVE TO A VISION ARE NOT
OFFERED IN VAIN.
LEADERSHIP
IS ALWAYS AN ATTEMPT TO PERSUADE
OTHERS TO SEE SOMETHING FROM A NEW
PERSPECTIVE AND TO MOTIVATE THEM TO
ACTION ON BEHALF OF THAT PERSPECTIVE.
POLITICS (POLIS)
IS THE ART ASSOCIATED WITH THAT
INTENTION.
THE GOAL OF POLITICS IS TO
PROMOTE CIVIC DISCOURSE.
CIVILITY
IS A CIVIC VIRTUE AND
RESPONSIBILITY. WE HAVE TO CLAIM
OUR VOICE BECAUSE WE ARE NOT
SUBJECTS BUT CITIZENS.
VOICE
AS WE CLAIM OUR VOICES, WE
ENCOURAGE A COMMUNITY OR GROUP
TO MOVE FROM “IS” TO “OUGHT.”
REMEMBER, AS WE ADVOCATE FOR
WHAT WE BELIEVE, IT IS ALSO
POSSIBLE TO DISCOVER A NOBLE
PURPOSE FOR OUR LIFE.
VIRTUE
IS AN EARNED CHARACTERISTIC THAT
WE EARN BY ENGAGING IN BEHAVIOR
THAT REQUIRES VIRTUOUS ACTION.
WHETHER VICE OR VIRTUE,
WE BECOME WHAT WE PRACTICE.
ETHICAL LEADERSHIP
CHALLENGES US TO ENGAGE IN THE
NOBLE WORK OF ADVANCING THE
COMMON GOOD.
THE COMMON GOOD
IS A RENEWABLE RESOURCE. WE ARE
RESPONSIBLE AS INDIVIDUALS AND
COMMUNITY FOR TENDING THE
GROWTH OF THE COMMON GOOD.
ENGAGING IN JUST AND CARING
RELATIONSHIPS IS A POWERFUL WAY
TO PURSUE THE COMMON GOOD.
WHEN WE ENGAGE THE WORLD ON
BEHALF OF THE COMMON GOOD, WE
ARE BOUND TO DEVELOP VIRTUE.
ETHICAL LEADERSHIP BEGAN BY TAKING
RESPONSIBILITY FOR ONE’S OWN LIFE. NO
MATTER WHERE WE ARE IN LIFE (STUDENT,
SOCIAL WORKER, NURSE, COUNSELOR,
TEACHER, MINISTER, JUDGE, GOVERNMENT
EMPLOYEE, COPORATE EMPLOYEE, ETC.)
WE ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR
PROCLAIMING OUR FREEDOM.
WE KNOW THAT LIFE IN A DEMOCRACY
IS A PRIVILEGE AND A DUTY.
WE SHOULD EMBRACE DEMOCRACY WITH
GRATITUDE AND CELEBRATE BY PRACTICING
IT ON A DAILY BASIS, BECAUSE WE HAVE A
RESPONSIBILITY AS A CITIZEN.
EXERCISE YOUR RIGHTS
GRACIAS