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Using SOLO Taxonomy to raise the quality of learning to “out of this world.” For learning to be successful, it needs to be • focused • meaningful, purposeful and utilised • linked to other knowledge • reflected upon • sustained over time Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes Activity: In groups discuss what a tree would be like at each level. Individually, in each your 5 spaces, draw a tree representing a level of SOLO, and write a statement about the tree at that level. Be ready to share in approx 10 minutes. Prestructural This is a Tree Unistructural A tree has a trunk, leaves and fruit. Multistructural When a tree grows, the roots grow down into the soil, and a trunk begins growing above. From this trunk grow branches, twigs and leaves. Relational The roots of a tree anchor it firmly in the ground and absorb nutrients and water from the soil. Plant leaves absorb carbon dioxide, pull water up through their roots and use light to make sugar (photosynthesis). Plants use the sugar to grow. Plants give off oxygen as a by-product. The green parts of the plant make the sugar and oxygen. In winter some trees lose their leaves as the nutrients move down into the root systems as light and warmth diminish. Extended Abstract The tree has an important role to play in the survival of the planet. If, for example, we cut down rainforests or clear native bush to develop an exotic forestry industry, we risk irreversible damage to our planet. How will our planet renew its atmosphere if we remove most of the trees? What effect will it have on birds and insects, and how will that in turn affect us? What do we need to think about here? Comparisons of Taxonomies that indicate developmental stages for Learning Simple Rubric SOLO Taxonomy Bloom’s Taxonomy Classroom Cues Students can self assess themselves against the cowritten criteria and identify their next step in learning to achieve the expected goal. Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes The most-used of the domains, refers to knowledge structures (although sheer “knowing the facts” is its bottom level). It can be viewed as a sequence of progressive contextualisation of the material. Evidence in the classroom/learning programme. What will we see/hear/feel in the learning space as evidence. Novice – Unconscious Incompetent Pre-structural: here students are simply acquiring bits of unconnected information, which have no organisation and make no sense. Knowledge (Remembering) list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who , when, where, etc. Observation and recall of facts Knowledge of dates, events, places Knowledge of major ideas Mastery of subject matter List details Remember information Apprentice Conscious Incompetent Unistructural: simple and obvious connections are made, but their significance is not grasped. Comprehension (Understanding) summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend Examples given Important details restated Explanation of how something works Understanding information Grasp meaning Translate knowledge into new context Interpret facts, compare, contrast Order, group, infer causes Predict consequences Practitioner Conscious Competent Multistructural: a number of connections may be made, but the meta-connections between them are missed, as is their significance for the whole. Application (Applying) apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover Most important details selected Information organised Show how something works Make something work Use information Use methods, concepts, theories to new situations Solve problems using required skills or knowledge Relational level: the student is now able to appreciate the significance of the parts in relation to the whole Analysis (Analysing) separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer Connections made between this and other things, cause and effect Parts of the whole are examined and put into correct groups Seeing patterns Organisation of parts Recognition of hidden meanings Identification of components Extended abstract level: the student is making connections not only within the given subject area, but also beyond it, able to generalise and transfer the principles and ideas underlying the specific instance. Synthesis (Synthesizing) combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if? Compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite A better way of doing things Something has been redesigned or blended together with the old and the new A hypothesis or prediction has been made Use old ideas to create new ones Generalize from given facts Relate knowledge from several areas Predict, draw conclusions Evaluate (Evaluating) assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, Pointing out strengths and weaknesses Evaluating its clearness, accuracy, value Expert Unconscious Competent Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes It describes level of increasing complexity in a student's understanding of a subject, through five stages, and it is claimed to be applicable to any subject area. Self Assessing: Where are you? What do you need to do to move to the next step? Why use SOLO? •SOLO is a true hierarchic taxonomy – increasing in quantity and quality of thought •SOLO identifies five stages of understanding. Each stage embraces the previous level but adds something more. •SOLO is a powerful tool in differentiating curriculum and providing cognitive challenge for learners •SOLO allows teachers and learners to ask deeper questions without creating new ones •SOLO is a powerful metacognitive tool Surface and Deep Thinking •Unistructural and multistructural questions test students’ surface thinking (lower-order thinking skills) •Relational and extended abstract questions test deep thinking (higher-order thinking skills) •Use of SOLO allows us to balance the cognitive demand of the questions we ask and to scaffold students into deeper thinking and metacognition Key Competency: Managing Self Prestructural l Unistructural Needs Teacher assistance Definition identifies one relevant idea ll Multistructural lll Relational Definition identifies several relevant ideas Definition identifies several relevant ideas and links these to the whole lll+Extended Abstract Definition identifies several relevant ideas and links these to the whole. Taken into another context. Create an Assessment Rubric For “Sporting A Dream” As an example of the Inquiry Process in learning. Assessment for “Sporting a Dream”: Prestructural l Unistructural Needs Teacher assistance Definition identifies one relevant idea ll Multistructural lll Relational Definition identifies several relevant ideas Definition identifies several relevant ideas and links these to the whole lll+Extended Abstract Definition identifies several relevant ideas and links these to the whole. Taken into another context. Planning a Unit: (Using Coded Thinking Interventions) Prestructural l Unistructural Needs Teacher assistance Definition identifies one relevant idea ll Multistructural lll Relational Definition identifies several relevant ideas Definition identifies several relevant ideas and links these to the whole lll+Extended Abstract Definition identifies several relevant ideas and links these to the whole. Taken into another context.