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Transcript
Using SOLO Taxonomy to
raise the quality of learning
to “out of this world.”
For learning to be successful, it needs to be
• focused
• meaningful, purposeful and utilised
• linked to other knowledge
• reflected upon
• sustained over time
Structure of
Observed
Learning
Outcomes
Activity: In groups discuss what a tree would be like at each level.
Individually, in each your 5 spaces, draw a tree representing a level of SOLO, and write a
statement about the tree at that level. Be ready to share in approx 10 minutes.
Prestructural
This
is a
Tree
Unistructural
A tree has a
trunk, leaves
and fruit.
Multistructural
When a tree grows, the roots
grow down into the soil, and
a trunk begins growing
above. From this trunk grow
branches, twigs and leaves.
Relational
The roots of a tree anchor it
firmly in the ground and absorb
nutrients and water from the
soil. Plant leaves absorb carbon
dioxide, pull water up through
their roots and use light to make
sugar (photosynthesis). Plants
use the sugar to grow. Plants
give off oxygen as a by-product.
The green parts of the plant
make the sugar and oxygen. In
winter some trees lose their
leaves as the nutrients move
down into the root systems as
light and warmth diminish.
Extended
Abstract
The tree has an important role
to play in the survival of the
planet. If, for example, we cut
down rainforests or clear
native bush to develop an
exotic forestry industry, we
risk irreversible damage to our
planet. How will our planet
renew its atmosphere if we
remove most of the trees?
What effect will it have on
birds and insects, and how will
that in turn affect us? What do
we need to think about here?
Comparisons of Taxonomies that indicate developmental stages for Learning
Simple Rubric
SOLO Taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Classroom Cues
Students can self assess
themselves against the cowritten criteria and identify
their next step in learning to
achieve the expected goal.
Structure of
Observed
Learning
Outcomes
The most-used of the domains, refers to
knowledge structures (although sheer “knowing
the facts” is its bottom level). It can be
viewed as a sequence of progressive
contextualisation of the material.
Evidence in the classroom/learning
programme.
What will we see/hear/feel in the learning
space as evidence.
Novice –
Unconscious Incompetent
Pre-structural: here students are simply
acquiring bits of unconnected information,
which have no organisation and make no
sense.
Knowledge
(Remembering)
list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label,
collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who ,
when, where, etc.
Observation and recall of facts
Knowledge of dates, events, places
Knowledge of major ideas
Mastery of subject matter
List details
Remember information
Apprentice
Conscious Incompetent
Unistructural: simple and obvious
connections are made, but their significance
is not grasped.
Comprehension (Understanding)
summarize, describe, interpret, contrast,
predict, associate, distinguish, estimate,
differentiate, discuss, extend
Examples given
Important details restated
Explanation of how something works
Understanding information
Grasp meaning
Translate knowledge into new context
Interpret facts, compare, contrast
Order, group, infer causes
Predict consequences
Practitioner
Conscious Competent
Multistructural: a number of connections
may be made, but the meta-connections
between them are missed, as is their
significance for the whole.
Application
(Applying)
apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete,
illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate,
change, classify,
experiment, discover
Most important details selected
Information organised
Show how something works
Make something work
Use information
Use methods, concepts, theories to new
situations
Solve problems using required skills or
knowledge
Relational level: the student is now able to
appreciate the significance of the parts in
relation to the whole
Analysis
(Analysing)
separate, order, explain, connect,
classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain,
infer
Connections made between this and other
things, cause and effect
Parts of the whole are examined and put into
correct groups
Seeing patterns
Organisation of parts
Recognition of hidden meanings
Identification of components
Extended abstract level: the student is
making connections not only within the given
subject area, but also beyond it, able to
generalise and transfer the principles and
ideas underlying the specific instance.
Synthesis
(Synthesizing)
combine, integrate, modify, rearrange,
substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?
Compose,
formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite
A better way of doing things
Something has been redesigned or blended
together with the old and the new
A hypothesis or prediction has been made
Use old ideas to create new ones
Generalize from given facts
Relate knowledge from several areas
Predict, draw conclusions
Evaluate
(Evaluating)
assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure,
Pointing out strengths and weaknesses
Evaluating its clearness, accuracy, value
Expert
Unconscious Competent
Structure of
Observed
Learning
Outcomes
It describes level of increasing complexity in a student's understanding of a subject, through five stages,
and it is claimed to be applicable to any subject area.
Self Assessing:
 Where are you?
 What do you need to do to move to the next step?
Why use SOLO?
•SOLO is a true hierarchic taxonomy – increasing in
quantity and quality of thought
•SOLO identifies five stages of understanding. Each
stage embraces the previous level but adds something
more.
•SOLO is a powerful tool in differentiating curriculum and
providing cognitive challenge for learners
•SOLO allows teachers and learners to ask deeper
questions without creating new ones
•SOLO is a powerful metacognitive tool
Surface and Deep Thinking
•Unistructural and multistructural questions test
students’ surface thinking (lower-order thinking skills)
•Relational and extended abstract questions test deep
thinking (higher-order thinking skills)
•Use of SOLO allows us to balance the cognitive demand
of the questions we ask and to scaffold students into
deeper thinking and metacognition
Key Competency: Managing Self
 Prestructural
l
Unistructural
Needs Teacher
assistance
Definition identifies
one relevant idea
ll Multistructural
lll
Relational
Definition identifies
several relevant ideas
Definition identifies
several relevant ideas
and links these to the
whole
lll+Extended
Abstract
Definition identifies
several relevant ideas
and links these to the
whole. Taken into
another context.
Create an Assessment Rubric
For
“Sporting A Dream”
As an example of the
Inquiry Process in learning.
Assessment for “Sporting a Dream”:
 Prestructural
l
Unistructural
Needs Teacher
assistance
Definition identifies
one relevant idea
ll Multistructural
lll
Relational
Definition identifies
several relevant ideas
Definition identifies
several relevant ideas
and links these to the
whole
lll+Extended
Abstract
Definition identifies
several relevant ideas
and links these to the
whole. Taken into
another context.
Planning a Unit: (Using Coded Thinking Interventions)
 Prestructural
l
Unistructural
Needs Teacher
assistance
Definition identifies
one relevant idea
ll Multistructural
lll
Relational
Definition identifies
several relevant ideas
Definition identifies
several relevant ideas
and links these to the
whole
lll+Extended
Abstract
Definition identifies
several relevant ideas
and links these to the
whole. Taken into
another context.