Download Physics of Fusion power Lecture4 : Quasi-neutrality Force on the plasma

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Transcript
Physics of Fusion power
Lecture4 : Quasi-neutrality
Force on the plasma
Quasi-neutrality
 
Using the Poisson equation
 
And a Boltzmann relation for the densities
 
One arrives at an equation for the potential
Positive added charge
Response of the plasma
Solution
 
The solution of the Poisson equation is
Potential in vacuum
The length scale for
shielding is the Debye
length which depends
on both Temperature
as well as density. It is
around 10-5 m for a
fusion plasma
Shielding due to the charge screening
Vacuum and plasma solution
Quasi-neutrality
 
For length scales larger than the Debye length the
charge separation is close to zero. One can use the
approximation of quasi-neutrality
 
Note that this does not mean that there is no
electric field in the plasma
Under the quasi-neutrality approximation the
Poisson equation can no longer be used to
calculate the electric field
 
Divergence free current
 
Using the continuity of charge
 
Where J is the current density
 
One directly obtains that the current density must
be divergence free
Also the displacement current
must be neglected
 
From the Maxwell equation
 
Taking the divergence and using that the current is
divergence free one obtains
 
The displacement current must therefore be
neglected, and the relevant equation is
Quasi-neutrality
 
 
 
 
 
The charge density is defined to be equal to zero
(but a finite electric field does exist)
This equation replaces the Poisson equation. (we
do not calculate the electric field from Poisson’s
equation, which would give zero field)
Additionally, the displacement current is neglected.
Length scales of the phenomena are larger than the
Debye length, time scales longer than the plasma
frequency.
The current is divergence free.
Force on the plasma
 
The force on an individual particle due to the
electro-magnetic field (s is species index)
 
Assume a small volume such that
 
Then the force per unit of volume is
Force on the plasma
 
For the electric field
 
Define an average velocity
 
Then for the magnetic field
Force on the plasma
 
Averaged over all particles
 
Now sum over all species
 
The total force density therefore is
Force on the plasma
 
This force contains only the electro-magnetic part.
For a fluid with a finite temperature one has to add
the pressure force
Reformulating the Lorentz
force
 
Using
The force can be written as
 
Then using the vector identity
 
Force on the plasma
 
One obtains
Magnetic field pressure
 
Magnetic field tension
Important parameter (also efficiency parameter) the
plasma-beta
Magnetic equilibria
 
For stationary magnetic confinement device
force balance implies than inside the
plasma:
 
Unfortunately, an isolated region plasma
cannot be confined by its own currents.
Pressure balance requires external
confining force
 
Flux conservation
 
 
 
When trying to change the
magnetic flux through a
metal ring an electric field
is generated (Faraday)
which drives a current such
that it tries to conserve the
flux
The current eventually
decays due to the resistivity
A perfect conductor,
however, would conserve
the magnetic flux
Flux conservation
 
 
 
 
 
A plasma is like a metal
(electrons are free)
A hot plasma has a small
resistivity
As a first approximation it is
perfectly conducting
Flux is then conserved but
the fluid can be moving
Flux is transported along
with the fluid