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Binomial Nomenclature
Scientific Naming
Scientific Name Game
Ever hear of E. coli?
• It is the
abbreviated
form of the
scientific name
of Escherichia
coli
T. rex.
• Tyrannosaurus rex
• Often lazy scientists
just abbreviate the
Genus with just a
letter.
Binomial Nomenclature
two terms: the genus and the species
• Example:
Common name = sugar pine
Scientific name = Pinus lambertiana
• ponderosa pine: Pinus ponderosa
lodgepole pine: Pinus contorta
Escherichia coli or
Escherichia coli
SCIENTIFIC NAME RULES
• Genus is CAPITALIZED
(written first)
• Species is lower case
• Written in Latin
• Italicized OR underlined
Carolus Linnaeus: devised the binomial
nomenclature system
• Studied medicine
• Disappointed
parents that he
did not enter
priesthood
• Studied plants to
make medicines
1707-1778
Where do the names come from?
• Often they are Latin words, but they may also
come from Ancient Greek:
• from a place
• from a person (preferably a naturalist)
• a name from a local language
• including inside-jokes and puns
• Play on words
Some Unusual Names
• Crichtonsaurus Dong - (named
after Michael Crichton –
author of Jurassic Park)
• Lalapa lusa (tiphiid wasp)
• Abra cadabra (a clam)
• Enema pan (rhinoceros beetle)
• Orizabus botox (wrinkle free scarab beetle)
• Cedecea- (bacterium named after CDC)
Biologists prefer to call organisms
by
• Their scientific names rather than
their common names
• No two species have the same scientific name
although they may share a common genus. The
genus name shows a very close relationship.
• Felis domestica .....house cat
• Felis leo ............. lion
• Felis onca ........... jaguar
• Felis pardalis ....... ocelot
• Felis concolor ...... mountain lion
TAXONS (units of taxonomy)
 Domain
 Kingdom
 Phylum
 Class
 Order
 Family
 Genus
 Species
How Can I Remember All Those Names?
• Kings Play Chess On Fine Glass
Sand."
LINNAEAN CLASSIFICATION OF HUMANS
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Homo
Species: sapiens
Bear Taxons
Dichotomous Key
• An identification key, also known
as a dichotomous key, based on a
series of two choices.
• Kinda like a scavenger hunt.
Making a Dichotomous Key
• "Dichotomous" means
"divided into two parts".
• always give two choices in each
step
Divide into YOUR LAB GROUPS
You will classify at least 15 LEAVES
Tape
leaves at
the end of
the
divisions
LEAF ACTIVITY EXAMPLE
See there is a leaf at each dead-end.
Good Place to Start
ALL LEAVES
How might
you divide
these?
broadleaf
needles
LEAF Tree ID Key (CLICK Here)
Tree Key
Tips
• Use measurements rather than terms like
"large" and "small“(larger than 6”, smaller
than 6”)
• Make the first choice a positive one something "is" instead of "is not".
• If possible, start both choices of a pair with
the same word.
• 1. a. wings covered by an exoskeleton
• b. wings not covered by an exoskeleton
A BRIEF KEY TO SELECTED TREES AND
SHRUBS
• Tree key (Click Here)
• Identify Tree by Name
• Key To leaves of Virginia Trees
Common Leaf Descriptions
LAB VIDEOS (for Shell Classification
Lab Fig. 3)
• http://www.oceanfootage.com/stockfootage/Barnacl
e (scroll down)
• Common lobster - Homarus gammarus - download
video 06 – ARKive
• SERC - Education K12: Blue Crab Food Web
• Shrimp
• fiddler crab: Definition from Answers.com
• (scroll down)
• Hermit Crab also type in shrimp + Blue Crab