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Transcript
CURTAIN SQUARE
SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN
September 2011
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
2011
CONTENTS
1.0
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 3
1.1
Purpose ......................................................................................................................... 3
1.2
Site Description ............................................................................................................. 3
1.3
Consultation ................................................................................................................... 3
2.0
MANAGEMENT ISSUES .................................................................................................. 4
2.1
Tree Management ......................................................................................................... 4
2.1.1
Irrigation ................................................................................................................ 4
2.1.2
Mulch .................................................................................................................... 5
2.1.3
Turf Control ............................................................................................................ 5
2.1.4
Compaction ........................................................................................................... 5
2.1.5
Elm Leaf Beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola) ....................................................................... 5
2.2
Possum Management ................................................................................................... 5
2.2.1
Population Surveys................................................................................................ 5
2.2.2
Population Density ................................................................................................. 6
2.2.3
Supplementary Feeding ........................................................................................ 6
2.2.4
Fertility Control ...................................................................................................... 6
2.2.5
Euthanasia ............................................................................................................. 7
2.2.6
Tree Banding ........................................................................................................ 7
2.3
Urban Wildlife Management in Yarra ............................................................................ 7
2.4
Heritage Issues .............................................................................................................. 8
3.0
CSCAC VISION ................................................................................................................. 9
4.0
OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................... 9
4.1
Objective 1 ..................................................................................................................... 9
4.2
Objective 2 ..................................................................................................................... 9
4.3
Objective 3 ................................................................................................................... 10
4.4
Objective 4 ................................................................................................................... 10
4.5
Objective 5 ................................................................................................................... 10
4.6
Objective 6 ................................................................................................................... 10
4.7
Objective 7 ................................................................................................................... 10
5.0
IMPLEMENTATION......................................................................................................... 11
5.1
Actions for Objective 1 ................................................................................................ 11
5.2
Actions for Objective 2 ................................................................................................ 11
5.3
Actions for Objective 3 ................................................................................................ 11
5.4
Actions for Objective 4 ................................................................................................ 11
5.5
Actions for Objective 5 ................................................................................................ 12
5.6
Actions for Objective 6 ................................................................................................ 12
5.7
Actions for Objective 7 ................................................................................................ 12
APPENDIX 1 – PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATE..................................................................... 13
2
City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
1.0
INTRODUCTION
1.1
Purpose
2011
The purpose of the Curtain Square Site Management Plan is to guide the future management of
the Park to ensure a sustainable environment for all park users. The Plan makes environmental,
vegetation, and wildlife management recommendations and actions for this heavily used and
highly valued urban landscape. The Plan identifies a vision for Curtain Square, along with
objectives to meet this vision, and actions for implementation.
1.2
Site Description
Curtain Square is a 1.46 hectare park in Carlton North, and is one of the most popular
neighbourhood parks within the City of Yarra. It is bound by Curtain and Newry Streets to the
north and south respectively, with Rathdowne and Canning Streets forming its western and
eastern boundaries.
The area was originally a bluestone quarry before being converted to public open space in the
1870’s. Planting on the site originated in 1876 with additional planting taking place in 1884. A
number of the trees in the park today are likely to be from these plantings.
The area has undergone a number of changes from its original, strongly symmetrical layout
which consisted of two paths running along the central north-south and east-west axis dividing
the site into four quadrants. Perhaps one of the largest changes occurred during the post-war
period where the emphasis of the use of Curtain Square changed from a meeting place for older
men of limited means to a major children’s recreational centre. This change resulted in the loss
of much of the late 19th century design, particularly the path network.
Today Curtain Square still caters to children’s recreation with a fenced junior playground area, a
second playground area catering to the needs of older children, hard-surfaced ball courts and
open lawn areas. Other uses of Curtain Square include picnicking, dog walking, and leisure and
recreation.
1.3
Consultation
The management of trees and possums at Curtain Square has been an ongoing issue and
matter of community friction for many years.
More recently, a public meeting was held on 24 May 2010 to discuss issues around developing
a Management Plan for Curtain Square to guide future management of the park. Following this
meeting, Council determined at its Ordinary Meeting in October 2010 to establish the Curtain
Square Community Advisory Committee (CSCAC) comprising members of the Community,
Councillors and Council officers
The role of the CSCAC was to contribute to the development of the Curtain Square Site
Management Plan through stakeholders who represent the open space, flora and fauna
interests of the wider Yarra community.
The terms of reference for the CSCAC state that ‘A particular emphasis of the CSCAC will be on
the identification, protection and preservation of the tree population in Curtain Square under the
guidelines developed in Councils Urban Wildlife Management Plan, 2009’.
The CSCAC met five times from February to April 2011 and developed a set of
recommendations and actions which have informed this Plan.
3
City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
2.0
2011
MANAGEMENT ISSUES
The studies conducted for Council by various consultants and the CSCAC concur that damage
to trees at Curtain Square was not solely the result of possum browsing and that a multipronged approach was required to secure the future of the park including both tree and possum
management.
2.1
Tree Management
There are a number of factors affecting the health and vigour of the trees in Curtain Square
including drought, compaction, senescence, disease, and grazing by Common Brushtail
Possums. Management of these factors is vital if tree health and longevity is to be increased.
The recent drought has taken its toll on many of the trees in Curtain Square. A comparison of
assessments carried out by Homewood Consulting in 2005 and again in 2009 confirms this with
a reduction in the number of established trees assessed as “good” and a corresponding
increase in the number assessed as “poor”. New tree plantings have also taken place during
this time including the replacement of a number of the trees removed in 2005. These juvenile
trees currently make up almost 30% of the total tree population.
Curtain Square therefore, lacks a variety of tree ages 10 and 100 years old that ensures the
park will always have offer high levels of amenity for park users. The consequence is that when
the most mature trees die it will be many years before the newly planted trees are able to
provide the extensive green canopy valued by park users and wildlife in this Park, and for this
reason the mature, aged trees must be protected to give them the longest life span possible.
A tree planting and replacement strategy is needed to guide the planting of vegetation to
replace senescent trees and to increase the amount of vegetation in Curtain Square. The
CSCAC placed heavy emphasis on an increased diversity of both plant species and layers in
Curtain Square, including more understorey / garden bed planting and a mix of exotic and
indigenous species with a variety of flowering times.
Management techniques available include:
 increasing the amount of moisture available to trees through irrigation;
 increased/more frequent mulching;
 turf control;
 a reduction of compaction around trees;
 control of Elm Leaf Beetle in the elms;
 a reduction of possum numbers to a more sustainable level; and
 implementation of a tree replacement programme.
2.1.1
Irrigation
The amount of supplementary water needed to be applied to trees to secure their health and
vigour will depend on a number of factors including temperature, rainfall, tree size and canopy
coverage and the health of the trees’ root systems. Observations on the health of the trees
including canopy coverage (in the absence of predation by pests), leaf size and colour are all
good indicators of whether trees are receiving adequate water.
Throughout the irrigation season, measurement of the moisture content of the soil should be
undertaken to help with timing irrigation. This may involve digging a small hole with a shovel
near the drip line of trees and observing and feeling the moisture content of the soil or
alternatively moisture sensors could be used.
Similarly, Homewood Consulting (2005) have suggested installing extra irrigation hose around
the trees, particularly the avenue of Moreton Bay Figs and the Planes along Rathdowne Street
to provide more effective and consistent irrigation over the root zone.
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City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
2.1.2
2011
Mulch
A mulch layer provides protection to the root system by reducing the amount of evaporation
from the soil surface, reducing temperature extremes in the soil and reducing compaction of the
soil surface as well encouraging soil microbial activity, providing nutrients as it decomposes,
and suppressing weed growth.
A number of trees in Curtain Square have a mulch layer applied around them including the
Ficus Avenue, the Elm Avenue, the Plane trees along Rathdowne Street, some of the Elms
along Newry Street and some of the newer tree plantings.
Mulch layers should be extended to include all of the trees in Curtain Square with mulch applied
to the dripline of the trees, where the majority of the tree’s feeder roots are situated. Homewood
Consulting suggest a thickness of 150 mm and that mulch be reapplied to this thickness once it
falls below 80 mm.
2.1.3
Turf Control
Competition with turf for moisture is compounding the drought stress placed on trees. Turf
should be removed at least out to the dripline of the trees and replaced with mulch.
2.1.4
Compaction
Regular pedestrian traffic can cause compaction over the root zones of the trees, not only
restricting root growth but also reducing water penetration into the soil. There is a number of
methods available to help ameliorate compaction, such as shallow cultivation of the area and
soil-lifting by blasting the soil with compressed air, however results vary. Improving soil structure
through the application of compost and organic mulches, increasing irrigation and preventing
further compaction by restricting public access can often mitigate the effects of compaction on
trees.
2.1.5
Elm Leaf Beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola)
The larvae of the Elm Leaf Beetle can severely defoliate elm trees, reducing their
photosynthetic area and weakening the tree. Consecutive defoliations can eventually lead to
tree death. A current preventative management program within the City of Yarra treats all Elm
trees in parks on a three-year cycle through soil injection. This program will be continued,
including Curtain Square.
2.2
Possum Management
Common Brushtail Possums are well adapted to living in the urbanised environment of Curtain
Square. Their ability to exploit various human and natural resources has enabled them to
expand well beyond their normal density as found in natural environments. Although possums
are a valued component of the biodiversity of Curtain Square, the high population density has
lead to a number of issues within the park.
2.2.1
Population Surveys
An average of 60 Common Brushtail Possum’s was recorded over the 16th and 29th of January
2011 in a survey by Ecology Australia. This is a density of approximately 42 possums per
hectare (ha), which is consistent with previous surveys by Ecology Australia which recorded an
average of 60 Brushtail Possum’s (42 possums per ha) during February 2010. Earlier surveys in
September 2002 and April 2004 counted 29 animals, with an average of 51 and 50 animals
recorded in September 1999 and July 2000 respectively.
Curtain Square provides plentiful resources for possums, including high availability of dens and
consistent supplementary feeding. The exceptionally high density (42/ha) of Brushtail Possums
is ten times greater than that found in natural environments and three times greater than that
found within the highest-density parks within the City of Melbourne.
5
City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
2011
Regular feeding of possums is creating an artificially dense population greater than the natural
carrying capacity of the system. This is resulting in additional impacts to trees caused by
browsing and long-term welfare issues for these animals, including potential nutritional
deficiencies and increased territorial disputes. Whilst the survey was not intended to assess the
health or welfare of possums, several of the individuals recorded were wounded and/or in poor
condition indicative of competition and/or high density.
Given the population level and damage caused by possum browsing, as assessed using DSE
protocols, intervention and management is required for both the protection of the parks’
landscape and amenity values, and the sustainability and welfare of the resident possums.
2.2.2
Population Density
Brushtail Possum densities in natural environments range from 0.2 to 4 individuals per hectare
(Strahan 1995). Their numbers are regulated by resource availability, competition, predation,
wildfire and disease.
Brushtail Possums have readily adapted to modified urban environments, due to high food and
den availability, lowered predation levels and absence of wildfire. Densities in other urban parks
in Melbourne range from 6.9 / ha in Fitzroy Gardens to 13.5 / ha in Carlton Gardens South. The
possum density at Curtain Square (42 animals per ha) is ten times greater than that found in
natural environments and three times greater than that found within the highest-density parks
within the City of Melbourne.
The current density of 42 animals per ha at Curtain Square in 2010-2011 compares with 37
animals per ha in 1999 and 20.7 animals per ha in 2002 and 2004 (Harrison 2002, 2004). These
results show a fluctuating possum population within the park, both seasonally and over time, but
also an increase in the density over the last decade. The possum population at Curtain Square
has increased to a level determined by the available resources, including plentiful den sites and
consistent supplementary feeding, building up to a number not otherwise able to survive in such
a natural environment.
2.2.3
Supplementary Feeding
Feeding possums can lead to a dietary imbalance, and artificially high densities of possums
(Temby 2005). Many visitors, some international, are attracted to Curtain Square to view
possums. Some visitors feed possums without understanding the negative impact this has on
native animals.
This kind of supplementary feeding should be stopped by informing people through an
education program of the damage of supplementary feeding and the protected status of native
wildlife. Furthermore a local law banning supplementary feeding would allow Council to enforce
a no-feeding rule and signage in Curtain Square.
Because the possum population is accustomed to regular supplementary feeding, it is
recommended that a feeding program be brought under Council control, with input from wildlife
experts, and gradually reduced until all feeding can be completely stopped. Reduction of
feeding would be based on increased availability of fodder in the form of vegetation planted in
the park, and a reduced demand for food based on a controlled population reduction program
based on two fertility control strategies.
Public information about the feeding program should communicate the reasons and methods for
Council supplementary feeding to discourage any other members of the public from feeding the
possums. The recommended ongoing monitoring actions will allow the effects of population
management to inform the appropriate reduction of the feeding program.
2.2.4
Fertility Control
Fertility control is viewed as a preferred management option compared to euthanasia, and was
recommended by the Curtain Square Community Advisory Committee and is supported by
Council. Two types of control are available and have been tested on marsupials; these are
6
City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
2011
immunocontraceptive methods, and hormonal implants. The CSCAC was in favour of the
hormonal implant as a more ethical option for possum management.
Of hormonal implants, a contraceptive implant called deslorelin has been tested without any
negative side effects or other adverse effects on Brushtail Possums, and could be an effective
measure for management at Curtain Square. The implant was effective in preventing
reproduction in the study for approximately one year, therefore such a program would need to
be ongoing and reviewed on a regular basis to determine its efficacy and need for continuing.
As part of the multi-pronged approach, regular monitoring of possum numbers to determine if
control measures are having an impact on the population. Counts should be carried out
biannually in late spring/early summer and late autumn/early winter, including diurnal
assessment of den sites, nesting boxes, and tree damage, and nocturnal, spotlight
assessments of possum numbers. It is proposed that this be reviewed by Council two years
after it is commenced before continuing with the program.
2.2.5
Euthanasia
While not endorsed by Council as the preferred method, it is proposed that euthanasia remains
an option if the sterilisation program does not produce a meet the objective of reducing the
existing possum population and show a demonstrable improvement after two years of the
program.
2.2.6
Tree Banding
Tree banding can prevent over-grazing of vulnerable trees by possums. The placement of
bands should be done in a humane way to prevent injury to wildlife. Bands placed low on the
tree trunk can leave possums subject to attack by predators such as dogs on the ground without
the possibility of escape up the tree trunk. Where possible bands should be placed:
 above den sites, or if not possible
 above the first fork of the tree
If the tree structure does not allow placement in these locations, all hollows of the banded trees
should be checked for possums prior to banding and any possums present possums should be
removed from the tree and placed in a nesting box provided for this purpose.
Banded trees should either be isolated from adjoining trees by pruning branches of the
surrounding trees to leave a 1.5 – 2 m gap between canopies or if this is not possible,
surrounding trees should also be banded.
Existing banding on higher branches of six Elms has led to improvements in foliage density.
These bands were placed on higher branches mean to ensure possums are able to access
dens lower in the tree without grazing on the upper canopy. However it is accepted that the
majority of trees in Curtain Square do not have a similar vertical branching structure which
would allow this kind of banding to be effective.
Banding of trees is likely to increase grazing pressure on non-banded trees, particularly while
the possum population is high and needs to be monitored closely to prevent over-grazing of
these trees. Bands will need to be rotated between trees to ensure that trees have a chance to
recover from grazing whilst still providing some dens and food for possums. Rotation frequency
will depend on the recovery time of banded trees and all banded trees should be given sufficient
time for new leaves to emerge and harden and for the tree to manufacture and store
carbohydrate reserves before any band is removed. Bands should therefore remain on trees for
at least 8 weeks after the tree has developed new leaves.
2.3
Urban Wildlife Management in Yarra
In December 2009, the City of Yarra adopted an Urban Wildlife Plan prepared by Ecology
Australia. One of the key recommendations in the plan is to:
7
City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
2011
“investigate the need for a pest animal policy, or develop site vegetation management plans for
sites where the health of vegetation is threatened by over-feeding by native species like
possums and bell miners and noisy miners”
The Plan also identifies that:
Problematic fauna are not only those classified as feral exotic animals such as foxes but may
also include those native animals that are often highly abundant, out-competing many other
native species through aggressive behaviour. Fauna species that may be considered
problematic have been separated below into possum and native/exotic bird management.
In order to direct the allocation of resources for fauna management, the study area has been
divided into three Area Types:
(a)
Area Type 1 – Waterways and remnant vegetation. The primary focus for land
management should be the conservation of flora and fauna values, with additional values
and uses being managed to compliment urban bushland and wildlife habitat;
(b)
Area Type 2a – Urban Parks (Urban Bushland plantings). The primary aim for land
management should be to maintain and extend urban bushland plantings where possible,
maintain exotic planting where appropriate and provide for passive recreation;
(c)
Area Type 2b – Urban Parks (predominantly exotic parks and sporting ovals). The
primary focus for land management should be on the recreational values with
conservation of fauna habitat as a secondary purpose; and
(d)
Area Type 3 – Street Trees (provide landscape amenity and low values as fauna habitat).
Curtain Square has been identified as an Area Type 2b – Urban Parks. The following is an
extracted summary of the general management actions recommended for Area Type 2a and b:
urban parks with bushland plantings/sporting ovals/golf courses. Details of each action are
outlined within Plan Elements, Section Recommendations for Area Type 2 include:
(a)
maintain recreation focus;
(b)
consider adopting a policy to plant native species (preferably indigenous and local
provenance where possible) for plantings, noting that restrictions in regards to heritage
controls and adopted precinct planting plans may determine the actual species planted.
Planting indigenous flora of local provenance within areas in close proximity to the
waterways is particularly important (Moderate – high priority) (Section 5.1.3);
(c)
remove environmental weeds from existing planting guides (High priority);
(d)
retain all hollow bearing trees and stags (High priority) (Section 5.1.1);
(e)
investigate use of nest boxes to augment habitat and where already present engage
volunteers to monitor fauna use and exclude exotic species (Low priority) (Section
5.1.4); and
(f)
monitor health of trees for signs of possum damage. Install possum bands where the
overall health of tree is determined to be endangered (High priority, on-going
management required) (Section 5.1.9).
2.4
Heritage Issues
Curtain Square Conservation Analysis prepared by John Patrick Pty Ltd in February 2000
identified the significance of Curtain Square within the City of Yarra and enumerated each
component element as of primary, contributory and no significance to the place.
Elements of primary significance included the principal 19th century tree plantings including:
 The Moreton Bay Fig Avenue;
 The mature avenue and row plantings of Elms, many of which have since been
replaced;
 Other mature tree plantings including boundary oaks and the since-removed Camphor
Laurels and Grey Poplar.
The Camphor Laurels are of particular note as these trees were noted as being under severe
possum browsing stress, though possum damage to other trees was also noted in the
document.
The key considerations of this plan in terms of heritage are:
8
City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan

2011
the principal extant tree plantings identified as of primary significance should be
protected and managed to maximise their amenity value within the landscape; and
replacements should be selected from the same palette and located according to
historical precedent.

Opportunities potentially exist within the scope of the tree replacement strategy to re-establish
some of the early form of Curtain Square, including re-aligning the main western axial path
through the middle of the site which has recently been replanted with Elms, including at least
partial removal of the central mound.
3.0
CSCAC VISION
The following ten-year vision for Curtain Square was developed by the CSCAC.
The Curtain Square of 2020 will:
 be a sustainable and healthy community and environment.
 offer a variety of mainly passive activities for people of all ages and abilities, and
provide a welcoming, and comfortable space without conflict between users, which is
treasured by the community.
 have an increased number of large, healthy trees (including a large number of 9-year
old plantings) providing increased canopy and shade for all park users, as well as
increased layers of diverse planting such as groundcovers, grasses and shrubs.
 be a part of a broader, interconnected open space network joined by streetscape
planting and tree canopy, contributing to wildlife corridors.
 be a park which is self-sustaining in some small way, through the use of :
o treated and harvested stormwater
o diversity of species for habitat generation
o mulching and improved tree health.
4.0
OBJECTIVES
Objectives resulting from the vision and the desired outcomes are listed below.
4.1
Objective 1
An increased quantity and variety of healthy trees and vegetation in Curtain Square
Outcomes to measure success for this objective will include:
 The implementation of a tree strategy to guide planting in the park
 The presence of a diversity of vegetation including indigenous and exotic species which
will also provide a sustainable food source for wildlife
 The presence of healthy trees of different ages within the park to plan for senescence
and replacement of older trees
 A variety of plant flowering times and layers, including upper tree canopy, and middle
and lower storey planting including garden beds
 New plants are able to establish due to protection from possum browsing
4.2
Objective 2
The gradual decrease and cessation of supplementary feeding of Brushtail Possums
Outcomes to measure success for this objective will include:
 A council-managed feeding program will provide appropriate amounts and types of
supplementary food for possums until a stable population level is reached and adequate
vegetation is available as a food source.
 In the long-term there is no supplementary feeding of Brushtail Possums in Curtain
Square
9
City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan

2011
The community are educated about the value of native wildlife and the danger and
penalties of feeding them in the Park.
4.3
Objective 3
Establish a sustainable and stable possum population
Outcomes to measure success for this objective will include:
 A possum population which is at a sustainable level for the size of the Park and its
available natural food sources.
 The use of humane population control measures, such as fertility control, rather than
euthanasia, which should be considered a last resort measure.
 A carefully monitored program to understand the possum population.
4.4
Objective 4
The protection of vulnerable trees
Outcomes to measure success for this objective will include:
 Trees at risk from over-browsing are protected by the use of tree bands until they show
signs of improvement.
 Mature trees experience an extended life-span to cover the ‘gap’ in tree ages.
 Banding is implemented in a humane way to avoid endangering or trapping possums.
4.5
Objective 5
Management of nesting boxes to encourage a diverse native wildlife
Outcomes to measure success for this objective will include:
 A number of Brushtail Possum boxes appropriate to the stable population level,
including some surplus boxes.
 An increased diversity of species are able to live in Curtain Square.
4.6
Objective 6
Improved environmental quality and management
Outcomes to measure success for this objective will include:
 Improved health of flora and fauna through enhanced environmental management
actions, including water and soil.
 A park environment which has some self-sustaining qualities and relies on renewable
and recyclable resources.
4.7
Objective 7
Ongoing monitoring of park management
Outcomes to measure success for this objective will include:
 Regular monitoring and reporting against success of objectives
 Adjustments to management actions based on results of monitoring
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Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
5.0
2011
IMPLEMENTATION
The following implementation plan identifies the required actions, resources and timing to
achieve the objectives of the Management Plan. An estimate of costs by year can be found in
Appendix 1.
5.1
Actions for Objective 1
An increased variety and quantity of healthy trees and vegetation in Curtain Square
Action
Develop a Tree Strategy to identify
appropriate species and locations of
planting over time
Consult on Tree Strategy and obtain
Council endorsement
Implement Tree Strategy and planting
through ongoing annual program
5.2
Timing
Immediate
Responsibility
Open Space &
Arboriculture
Soon
Open Space &
Arboriculture
Open Space &
Arboriculture
Ongoing
Actions for Objective 2
The gradual decrease and cessation of supplementary feeding of Brushtail Possums
Action
Develop a feeding program including
dietary criteria appropriate to
circumstance
Carry out feeding per program
Timing
Immediate
Responsibility
Open Space, with
expert advice
Ongoing
Develop an education program to
discourage public from feeding and
littering, including informational signage
and literature
Enact a local law to ban feeding
Enforce local law
Removal and replacement of any non
possum-proof bins
Soon
Contractor to City of
Yarra
Open Space &
Communications
5.3
Soon
Ongoing
Immediate
Community Amenity
Community Amenity
Open Space
Actions for Objective 3
Establish a sustainable and stable possum population
Action
Develop a fertility control program using
previously tested hormonal implants
Carry out fertility control program using
services of a qualified veterinarian
Monitor effect of program and determine
ongoing annual retention or removal of
implants
5.4
Timing
Immediate
Soon
Ongoing
Responsibility
Open Space, with
expert advice
Open Space, with
expert advice
Open Space, with
expert advice
Actions for Objective 4
The protection of vulnerable trees
Action
Implement tree banding to protect trees
most vulnerable to over-browsing.
Rotate bands between trees as they
recover
Develop guidelines for humane banding,
including placing bands above dens
where tree structure allows or if not,
above the first fork where tree structure
11
Timing
Immediate
Responsibility
Arboriculture
Ongoing
Arboriculture
Ongoing
Arboriculture
City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
2011
allows or if not remove possums from the
tree into nesting boxes.
5.5
Actions for Objective 5
Management of nesting boxes to encourage a diverse native wildlife
Action
Provide a nesting box for each possum
removed from trees (due to banding or
tree removal)
Introduce nesting boxes of different sizes
(larger and smaller) to encourage
diversity of species
Inspect brushtail boxes (at times of
possum survey) and if there is evidence
they are not in use, numbers to be
reduced (while maintaining some surplus
above population number)
5.6
Timing
Ongoing
Responsibility
Arboriculture
Soon
Arboriculture
Ongoing
Arboriculture
Actions for Objective 6
Improved environmental quality and management
Action
Assess existing irrigation system and add
lines if required.
Asses soil moisture and irrigation regime
– increase irrigation at required times.
Investigate sustainable irrigation sources,
such as treated stormwater through
WSUD initiatives in the Park.
Install mulch layer to drip line of all trees
where it does not exist.
Top up mulch to 150mm depth when it
falls below 80mm depth.
Reduce compaction by aeration of soil
Pruning of trees to remove dead and
dangerous branches
5.7
Timing
Immediate
Responsibility
Arboriculture
Immediate
Arboriculture
Soon
Open Space
Immediate
Arboriculture
Ongoing
Arboriculture
Ongoing
Ongoing
Arboriculture
Arboriculture
Timing
Ongoing
Responsibility
Open Space
Immediate
Arboriculture
Actions for Objective 7
Ongoing monitoring of site management
Action
Survey possum population and use of
nesting boxes on a six-monthly basis to
determine feeding and fertility control
program adjustments.
Survey mature tree health two times a
year to identify trees at risk and inform
tree band rotation.
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City of Yarra
Curtain Square Draft Site Management Plan
2011
APPENDIX 1 – PRELIMINARY COST ESTIMATE
Note: all costs are preliminary estimates to be confirmed following expert advice on areas of
management
13
City of Yarra