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o The desire to reach East Asia where the goods
were found led to improved navigation
o Italian traders created a monopoly (they controlled prices)
in the Holy Land (Muslim traders would trade only with Italian
o This made goods too expensive for most Europeans
This led to improved navigation to find an all water
route to bypass the Middle East
a. Magnetic compass - to determine direction
b. Astrolabe – was used to calculate position
using the sun and stars
c. Sextant - used to determine latitude by
pointing at horizon and using the suns position
d. Caravel - a ship with 3 masts, 2 square sails
and a single triangular sail that moved to catch
Educated people believed the world was round
a. 1st to search for an all water route to Asia was
b. They sailed south around Africa
Religion as• aMostCause
European nations
were Catholic
– Catholic church
controlled by the Pope
• Pope & the Church
felt it necessary to
spread Christianity
– Missionaries left
Europe by the
thousands to
Christianize the world
– European monarchs
charted many voyages
with this plan
Spanish Exploration
• Spain wants in on the
– To share in the rich
Asian trade
– Spread Christianity
– Gold, Glory, & spreading
• Christopher Columbus
– Sail west to reach Asia
• King & Queen accept his
• Believed he found Asia
• Landed on the island of
Hispaniola (Haiti)
– Credited with
discovering the Americas
Land Disputes in the New World
• Spain & Portugal fought
over new lands
– Almost came to war
• Line of Demarcation
– Line drawn to divide the
world between Spain and
– Portugal protested the
placement of the line
• Treaty of Tordesillas
– Moved the Line of
Demarcation west
– Portugal able to settle in New World
• The colony’s sole purpose was to make
money for the mother country
• Create a favorable balance of trade
– Colonies provide raw materials
– Colonies served as new markets for goods made
in the home country
Northwest Passage
Italians, Dutch, & French
only interested in trading
English fished (originally)
off eastern Canada
They created profitable