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Transcript
Limits to Cell Growth
DNA overload
 creates an information
crisis…
 Library analogy,
everybody rushing to
the library to checkout
one of 5 copies of a
book.
Limits to Cell Growth
Exchanging nutrients & waste
rate of using food &
producing wastes
depends on cell
volume
Increased surface area to volume ratio
difficult to get oxygen,
food, and wastes out of
the cell if the cell gets
too large
Exiting the CHS parking
lot at 3:10 pm is hard
because there are only 2
outlets (small surface
area and a large volume
of people trying to
leave.)
Cell division
-Cells of every organisms have a specific #
of chromosomes:
fruit flies = 8
humans = 46
Interphase
The majority of time in the
cell cycle
 G1 – cell growth,
synthesize proteins and
organelles
 S – DNA replication
(copies are made) – the
longest step
 G2 – shortest –
organelles and molecules
needed for division are
produced
Interphase
The majority of
time in the cell
cycle
Mitosis
 Division of the nucleus (Whitefish  )
Prophase
 longest phase of
mitosis (50-60%)
 chromosomes visible
 nuclear membrane
breaks apart
 spindle forms
 centrioles separate
Metaphase
 chromosomes line up
 each chromosome
connected to a
spindle fiber
Anaphase
sister chromatids separate
Telophase
 Begin to see cell
membrane (cell
plate) form
between cells
 Nuclear membrane
forms
Cytokinesis
the division of the
cytoplasm (2
daughter cells)
Mitosis animation-Hybrid
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGV3fv-uZYI
Abnormal Cell Growth
Abnormal Cell Growth
A Large Abdominal Tumor
Surgical Removal of Tumor
Surgical Removal of Tumor
Body without Tumor
Cancer
 Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S.
 Lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancers are the most
prevalent types
 Cancer = occurs when some of the body’s cells lose the
ability to control growth
 Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate
growth and divide uncontrollably
 Cancer cells absorb nutrients needed by other cells,
block nerve connections, and prevent organs from
functioning.
 Tumor = a mass of cancer cells
 Benign tumors = noncancerous
tumors that do not spread to other
tissue
 Malignant tumor = cancerous tumor
that invade and destroy surrounding
tissue
 Metastasis = the spread of cancer
cells

Caused by defects in the genes that regulate cell
growth and development


Sources of gene defects include
 tobacco
 radiation exposure
 defective genes
 viral infection
Many cancers have a defective p53 gene which halts
the cell cycle until chromosomes have been
replicated
 Surgery
 Radiation
 Chemotherapy – chemical compounds that kill cancer
 Targets rapidly dividing cells and also interferes with cell
division in normal cells (side effects)

The human body contains hundreds of
different cell types, and every one of them
develops from the single cell that starts the
process. How do the cells get to be so
different from each other?
 During the development of an organism, cells
differentiate into many types of cells.
 Stem cells = the unspecialized cells from which
differentiated cells develop
 Totipotent cells= can develop into any type of cell in
the body
 Pluripotent = can develop into most (but not all) of
the body’s cell types
 Inner cells in the early embryo
 (a hollow ball called a blastocyst)


Found in the inner cells mass of the early
embryo.
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent. (cells have
the capacity to produce most cell types in the
human body)
 Adult stem cells are multipotent. They can produce
many types of differentiated cells
 Adult stem cells of a given organ or tissue typically
produce only the types of cells that are unique to
that tissue.
 Peyton Manning Stem Cells?????
 Skin Cell Spray
 Repair or replace badly damaged cells and tissues.
 heart attack
 stroke
 spinal cord injuries.
 Embryonic stem cells are harvested from early embryos
 Most methods destroy the embryo
 In the past, US limited funding for the embryonic cell lines
used for research - NIH has136 embryonic stem lines in the
US that are currently being used for research
 Research is being done to



harvest embryonic stem cells without destroying the embryo
turning adult stem cells into pluripotent cells
Embryonic stem cells out of umbilical cord blood
 Cord Blood Banking News Clips
 Cord Blood Registry Video