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Music Theory – Mr. Jackson Scales SCALES are an ordered collection of pitches in whole-and half-step patterns. The word scale comes from the Latin word scalae meaning “Stairs” or “Ladder.” The Chromatic Scale The Major Scale The Minor Scale The Pentatonic Scale The Whole-Tone Scale The Diminished Scale (AKA The Octatonic Scale) The Blues Scale Modes Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Locrian Ionian* Aeolian* Scale Degree Names In addition to SCALE DEGREE NUMBERS (customarily written with a caret above the number) – we also use SCALE DEGREE NAMES to describe their function. Scale Degree Names In Minor scales – these terms may change slightly. (RAISED SUBMEDIANT and SUBTONIC) Certain pitches in the scale sound stronger or more stable than others. Scale degrees 4, 6, and 7 are ACTIVE TONES. Scale degrees 1 and 3 are considered RESOLUTION TONES because they are the notes to which the active tones move. Chromatic notes are even less stable! They create tension that want to resolve a half step to nearest scale degree. Chromatic Scale The Chromatic Scale is a symmetrical scale with all pitches spaced a half step apart. The chromatic scale is written using sharps for the ascending scale and the enharmonic equivalent flats for the descending scale. The Major Scale The Major Scale is created using a pattern of HALF and WHOLE steps. * This scale is asymmetrical ALL MAJOR SCALES HAVE THE SAME PATTERN! Steps to Building a Major Scale Let’s build a MAJOR SCALE starting on G! STEP 1: Use all letter names; begin and end on the same letter. STEP 2: Apply the pattern of whole and half steps by using only sharps or flats, NOT both! STEP 3: Make note of all of the ACCIDENTALS used in the major scale. This will relate to KEY SIGNATURES later. For G Major – we have 1 # (F#) Let’s Practice.. shall we? Let’s try some other scales ( on the white board.. PAY ATTENTION! ) A Theoretical Major Scale Let’s build a MAJOR SCALE starting on G#! (Note: This is not a “real” scale – as we would think of it as an Ab major scale.) STEP 1: Use all letter names; begin and end on the same letter. STEP 2: Apply the pattern of whole and half steps by using only sharps or flats, NOT both! STEP 3: Make note of all of the ACCIDENTALS used in the major scale. For G# Major – we have A LOT of accidentals! But we don’t have a Key Signature for G# Major as it’s not a REAL key.. If we did, this is what it would look like Key Signatures Key Signatures are written at the beginning of every staff. They show which pitches are to be sharp or flat consistently throughout the piece, and helps determine the key or tonal center. Major Scales help determine which accidentals make-up its key signature. For example: the G Major Scale has an F# in it – therefore it’s key signature has an F# in it. Key Signatures with Sharps Key Signatures with sharps always have the same order in which they appear. Some phrases to help you remember the order of sharps: -FCGDAEB - Fat Cats Get Done After Eight Bottles - Father Charles Goes Down And Enters Battle Number of Sharps Key Signature Key Name 0 C Major 1 G Major 2 D Major 3 A Major 4 E Major 5 B Major 6 F# Major 7 C# Major Placement of Key Signatures on the Grand Staff Key Signatures are always written on the staff between the clef and the time signature. The placement of sharps on the staff alternates direction in a “down first-then up” pattern. Note! Because accidentals are not notated on ledger lines, the sharp on A creates an exception to the “down-up” pattern. Key Signatures with Flats # of Flats Flats in Key Signature Key Signatures with flats always have the same order in which they appear. Some phrases to help you remember the order of flats: B E A D - Greatest Common Factor Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father Bread Eating After Dinner Gets Cats Fat Key Name (Major) 1 B F Major 2 BE B-Flat Major 3 BEA E-Flat Major 4 BEAD A-Flat Major 5 BEADG D-Flat Major 6 BEADGC G-Flat Major 7 BEADGCF C-Flat Major Placement of Key Signatures on the Grand Staff Key Signatures are always written on the staff between the clef and the time signature. The placement of sharps on the staff alternates direction in a “down first-then up” pattern. How do you Identify the Key from the Key Signature? Remember 4 Things: 1. No Sharps/Flats = Key of C 2. The Last Flat = Fa (4) 3. The Last Sharp = Ti (7) 4. Do (1) = The Name of Your Major Key The Circle of Fifths The Circle of Fifths demonstrates the relationship between key signatures. Each key signature that requires sharps appears around the circle to the right (clockwise), with each key a fifth higher. The key signatures that require flats appear around the circle to the left (counter-clockwise), each a fifth lower. The Natural Minor Scale Since there is a WHOLE STEP between the 7th and 8th scale degree.. We cannot call the 7th scale degree the leading tone, we now call it the SUBTONIC! Steps to Building a Minor Scale Let’s build a MINOR SCALE starting on G! STEP 1: Use all letter names; begin and end on the same letter. STEP 2: Apply the pattern of whole and half steps by using only sharps or flats, NOT both! STEP 3: Make note of all of the ACCIDENTALS used in the minor scale. This will relate to KEY SIGNATURES later. For G Minor – we have 2 b (Bb & Eb) Comparing Major and Minor Scales So here we see that C Major’s RELATIVE MINOR is A minor. - Notice that C Major and A minor share the same Key Signature! ** RELATIVES SHARE KEYS TO THE SAME HOUSE!!** Comparing Major and Minor Scales So here we see that C Major’s PARALLEL MINOR is C minor. - Notice that PARALLEL KEYS start on the SAME PITCH NAME!!!!! Going from Major to Natural Minor (starting on the same pitch) – you can construct a MAJOR SCALE – then LOWER the 3rd, 6th, and 7th scale degrees by a HALF step! Harmonic Minor Scale Composers noticed that the Natural Minor Scale lacked the LEADING TONE, so they ADDED one! La Ti Do Re Mi Fa Si La So basically you take a Natural Minor Scale – and raise the 7th scale degree by a HALF STEP to give the LEADING TONE feel to LA. ** This one sounds “Egyptian” – Let’s sing it.. Yes? Half Step The Problem with Harmonic Minor Although composers LOVED the feel of the LEADING TONE – the Harmonic Minor scale presented another problem. It wasn’t between scale degree 7 back to 1 – it was between scale degree 6 and 7. When they raised the 7th scale degree – they failed to see that they had just created an AUGMENTED 2ND interval between the 6th and 7th scale degree – which they did not like. At all. Well, some of the time. La Ti Do Re Mi Fa Si La Augmented 2nd So they decided to do something about that… …… any ideas on WHAT they did?? How Composers fixed the Aug 2nd … They decided to RAISE the 6th scale degree as well. La Ti Do Re Mi FI Si La Whole Step Problem solved, right???? Whole Step Not quite. …… Composers noticed that NOW --- the scale sounded too much like MAJOR! Melodic Minor Scale … To solve this problem – they decided to keep what they had ASCENDING – but then DESCENDING they reverted to NATURAL MINOR. LA TI DO RE MI FI SI LA SOL FA MI RE DO TI LA There you have it – MELODIC MINOR! Since we are now raising the 6th scale degree – we refer to this as a RAISED SUBMEDIANT Comparing all 3 Forms of Minor What Do you See? We see SCALAR VARIANCE here as all 3 forms of minor are used. -The Melody in measure 1 uses MELODIC MINOR (but in measure 2 the alto line uses F natural.) -In Measure 3 we see NATURAL MINOR in the alto part, but we see HARMONIC MINOR in the bass part. The Circle of Fifths Here see the relationship between minor keys using the Circle of Fifths. The Circle of Fifths Here we see everything --- Nice, huh?! The Pentatonic Scale This scale has five tones (not including the octave) – This scale is very common and found all over the world. The Whole Tone Scale This scale is unusual as it has seven tones including the octave – each pitch a whole step apart. This is an artificial scale because the altered notes do not represent a standard key signature and therefore accidentals are required to create the pattern. In relationship to a major scale – the whole-tone scale is: Or in sharp keys: The Diminished Scale (Octatonic) This scale alternates whole-step and half-step intervals. The result is 9 notes including the octave. This scale features four pairs of TRITONES (diminished fifths or augmented fourths). In relationship to the major scale, the diminished scale is: The Blues Scale This is a 7 note scale – counting the octave – that does not have a second of sixth scale degree. It does include the flatted fifth AND the fifth!! Crazy, right?! - It is often associated with a slower jazzy song style called THE BLUES. -The lowered notes are referred to as the “blue notes.” In relationship to the major scale, the blues scale is: Modes (AKA Church Modes) The term mode is synonymous with scale. A “church mode” is a scale with a different pattern of whole and half steps from a major or minor.