Download Unit 3 – Scales, Keys & Modes

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Transcript
Music Theory – Mr. Jackson
Scales
SCALES are an ordered collection of pitches in whole-and half-step patterns.
The word scale comes from the Latin word scalae meaning “Stairs” or
“Ladder.”
The Chromatic Scale
The Major Scale
The Minor Scale
The Pentatonic Scale
The Whole-Tone Scale
The Diminished Scale (AKA The Octatonic Scale)
The Blues Scale
Modes
Dorian
Phrygian
Lydian
Mixolydian
Locrian
Ionian*
Aeolian*
Scale Degree
Names
In addition to SCALE DEGREE NUMBERS (customarily written with a caret
above the number) – we also use SCALE DEGREE NAMES to describe
their function.
Scale Degree
Names
In Minor scales – these terms may change slightly.
(RAISED SUBMEDIANT and SUBTONIC)
Certain pitches in the scale sound
stronger or more stable than others.
Scale degrees 4, 6, and 7 are
ACTIVE TONES.
Scale degrees 1 and 3 are
considered RESOLUTION TONES
because they are the notes to which
the active tones move. Chromatic
notes are even less stable! They
create tension that want to resolve a
half step to nearest scale degree.
Chromatic Scale
The Chromatic Scale is a symmetrical scale with all pitches spaced a half
step apart. The chromatic scale is written using sharps for the ascending
scale and the enharmonic equivalent flats for the descending scale.
The Major Scale
The Major Scale is created using a pattern of HALF and WHOLE steps.
* This scale is asymmetrical
ALL MAJOR SCALES HAVE THE SAME PATTERN!
Steps to Building a
Major Scale
Let’s build a MAJOR SCALE starting on G!
STEP 1: Use all letter names; begin and end on the same letter.
STEP 2: Apply the pattern of whole and half steps by using only sharps or
flats, NOT both!
STEP 3: Make note of all of the ACCIDENTALS used in the major scale.
This will relate to KEY SIGNATURES later.
For G Major – we have 1 # (F#)
Let’s Practice.. shall
we?
Let’s try some other scales ( on the white board.. PAY ATTENTION! ) 
A Theoretical Major
Scale
Let’s build a MAJOR SCALE starting on G#! (Note: This is not a “real” scale
– as we would think of it as an Ab major scale.)
STEP 1: Use all letter names; begin and end on the same letter.
STEP 2: Apply the pattern of whole and half steps by using only sharps or
flats, NOT both!
STEP 3: Make note of all of the ACCIDENTALS used in the major scale.
For G# Major – we have A LOT of accidentals! But we don’t have a Key
Signature for G# Major as it’s not a REAL key.. If we did, this is what it
would look like
Key Signatures
Key Signatures are written at the beginning of every staff. They show which
pitches are to be sharp or flat consistently throughout the piece, and helps
determine the key or tonal center.
Major Scales help determine which accidentals make-up its key signature.
For example: the G Major Scale has an F# in it – therefore it’s key signature
has an F# in it.
Key Signatures with
Sharps


Key Signatures with sharps
always have the same order in
which they appear.
Some phrases to help you
remember the order of sharps:
 -FCGDAEB
 - Fat Cats Get Done After
Eight Bottles
 - Father Charles Goes Down
And Enters Battle
Number of Sharps
Key Signature
Key Name
0
C Major
1
G Major
2
D Major
3
A Major
4
E Major
5
B Major
6
F# Major
7
C# Major
Placement of Key Signatures on
the Grand Staff
Key Signatures are always written on the staff between the clef and the time
signature. The placement of sharps on the staff alternates direction in a
“down first-then up” pattern.
Note! Because accidentals are not notated on ledger lines, the sharp on A
creates an exception to the “down-up” pattern.
Key Signatures with
Flats
# of Flats Flats in Key Signature


Key Signatures with
flats always have the
same order in which
they appear.
Some phrases to help
you remember the order
of flats:
 B E A D - Greatest
Common Factor
 Battle Ends And
Down Goes Charles'
Father
 Bread Eating After
Dinner Gets Cats
Fat
Key Name (Major)
1
B
F Major
2
BE
B-Flat Major
3
BEA
E-Flat Major
4
BEAD
A-Flat Major
5
BEADG
D-Flat Major
6
BEADGC
G-Flat Major
7
BEADGCF
C-Flat Major
Placement of Key Signatures on
the Grand Staff
Key Signatures are always written on the staff between the clef and the time
signature. The placement of sharps on the staff alternates direction in a
“down first-then up” pattern.
How do you Identify the Key from
the Key Signature?
Remember 4 Things:
1. No Sharps/Flats = Key of C
2. The Last Flat = Fa (4)
3. The Last Sharp = Ti (7)
4. Do (1) = The Name of Your Major
Key
The Circle of Fifths
The Circle of Fifths demonstrates the relationship between key signatures.
Each key signature that requires sharps appears around the circle to the right
(clockwise), with each key a fifth higher. The key signatures that require flats
appear around the circle to the left (counter-clockwise), each a fifth lower.
The Natural Minor
Scale
Since there is a WHOLE
STEP between the 7th and
8th scale degree.. We
cannot call the 7th scale
degree the leading tone,
we now call it the
SUBTONIC!
Steps to Building a
Minor Scale
Let’s build a MINOR SCALE starting on G!
STEP 1: Use all letter names; begin and end on the same letter.
STEP 2: Apply the pattern of whole and half steps by using only sharps or
flats, NOT both!
STEP 3: Make note of all of the ACCIDENTALS used in the minor scale.
This will relate to KEY SIGNATURES later.
For G Minor – we have 2 b (Bb & Eb)
Comparing Major and
Minor Scales
So here we see that C Major’s RELATIVE MINOR is A minor.
- Notice that C Major and A minor share the same Key Signature!
** RELATIVES SHARE KEYS TO THE SAME HOUSE!!**
Comparing Major and
Minor Scales
So here we see that C Major’s PARALLEL MINOR is C minor.
- Notice that PARALLEL KEYS start on the SAME PITCH NAME!!!!!
Going from Major to Natural Minor (starting on the same pitch) – you can
construct a MAJOR SCALE – then LOWER the 3rd, 6th, and 7th scale degrees by
a HALF step!
Harmonic Minor
Scale
Composers noticed that the Natural Minor Scale lacked the LEADING TONE,
so they ADDED one!
La Ti Do Re Mi Fa Si La
So basically you take a Natural Minor Scale – and raise the
7th scale degree by a HALF STEP to give the LEADING
TONE feel to LA.
** This one sounds “Egyptian” – Let’s sing it.. Yes? 
Half Step
The Problem with
Harmonic Minor
Although composers LOVED the feel of the LEADING TONE – the Harmonic
Minor scale presented another problem. It wasn’t between scale degree 7 back
to 1 – it was between scale degree 6 and 7. When they raised the 7th scale
degree – they failed to see that they had just created an AUGMENTED 2ND
interval between the 6th and 7th scale degree – which they did not like. At all.
Well, some of the time. 
La Ti Do Re Mi Fa Si La
Augmented 2nd
So they decided to do something about that…
…… any ideas on WHAT they did??
How Composers fixed
the Aug 2nd
… They decided to RAISE the 6th scale degree as well.
La Ti Do Re Mi FI Si La
Whole
Step
Problem solved, right????
Whole
Step
Not quite.
…… Composers noticed that NOW --- the scale sounded too much like
MAJOR!
Melodic Minor Scale
… To solve this problem – they decided to keep what they had ASCENDING –
but then DESCENDING they reverted to NATURAL MINOR.
LA TI DO RE MI FI SI LA SOL FA MI RE DO TI LA
There you have it – MELODIC MINOR!
Since we are now
raising the 6th scale
degree – we refer to
this as a RAISED
SUBMEDIANT
Comparing all 3
Forms of Minor
What Do you See?
We see SCALAR VARIANCE here as all 3 forms of minor are used.
-The Melody in measure 1 uses MELODIC MINOR (but in measure 2 the
alto line uses F natural.)
-In Measure 3 we see NATURAL MINOR in the alto part, but we see
HARMONIC MINOR in the bass part.
The Circle of Fifths
Here see the relationship between minor keys using the Circle of Fifths.
The
Circle of
Fifths
Here we see everything --- Nice,
huh?!
The Pentatonic Scale
This scale has five tones (not including the octave) – This scale is very
common and found all over the world.
The Whole Tone Scale
This scale is unusual as it has seven tones including the octave – each pitch
a whole step apart. This is an artificial scale because the altered notes do
not represent a standard key signature and therefore accidentals are
required to create the pattern.
In relationship to a major scale – the whole-tone scale is:
Or in sharp keys:
The Diminished Scale
(Octatonic)
This scale alternates whole-step and half-step intervals. The result is 9 notes
including the octave. This scale features four pairs of TRITONES (diminished
fifths or augmented fourths).
In relationship to the major scale, the diminished scale is:
The Blues Scale
This is a 7 note scale – counting the octave – that does not have a second of
sixth scale degree. It does include the flatted fifth AND the fifth!! Crazy,
right?!
- It is often associated with a slower jazzy song style called
THE BLUES.
-The lowered notes are referred to as the “blue notes.”
In relationship to the major scale, the blues scale is:
Modes (AKA Church
Modes)
The term mode is synonymous with scale. A “church mode” is a scale with a
different pattern of whole and half steps from a major or minor.